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Purpose - To use our intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) rabbit model to assess the impact of IAC procedure, drug, dose, and choice of technique on ocular structure and function, to study the nature and etiology of IAC toxicity, and to compare to observations in patients.
Methods - Rabbits received IAC melphalan (0.4-0.8 mg/kg), carboplatin (25-50 mg), or saline, either by direct ophthalmic artery cannulation, or with a technique emulating nonocclusion. Ocular structure/function were assessed with examination, electroretinography (ERG), fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and OCT angiography, prior to and 5 to 6 weeks after IAC. Blood counts were obtained weekly. We reviewed our last 50 IAC treatments in patients for evidence of ocular or systemic complications.
Results - No toxicity was seen in the saline control group. With standard (0.4 mg/kg) melphalan, no vascular/microvascular abnormalities were seen with either technique. However, severe microvascular pruning and arteriolar occlusions were seen occasionally at 0.8 mg/kg doses. ERG reductions were dose-dependent. Histology showed melphalan dose-dependent degeneration in all retinal layers, restricted geographically to areas of greatest vascular density. Carboplatin caused massive edema of ocular/periocular structures. IAC patients experienced occasional periocular swelling/rash, and only rarely experienced retinopathy or vascular events/hemorrhage in eyes treated multiple times with triple (melphalan/carboplatin/topotecan) therapy. Transient neutropenia occurred after 46% of IAC procedures, generally after triple therapy.
Conclusions - IAC toxicity appears to be related to the specific drug being used and is dose-dependent, rather than related to the IAC procedure itself or the specific technique selected. These rabbit findings are corroborated by our clinical findings in patients.
BACKGROUND - Coronary artery calcified plaque (CAC) is strongly predictive of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality, both in general populations and individuals with type 2 diabetes at high risk for CVD. CAC is typically reported as an Agatston score, which is weighted for increased plaque density. However, the role of CAC density in CVD risk prediction, independently and with CAC volume, remains unclear.
METHODS - We examined the role of CAC density in individuals with type 2 diabetes from the family-based Diabetes Heart Study and the African American-Diabetes Heart Study. CAC density was calculated as mass divided by volume, and associations with incident all-cause and CVD mortality [median follow-up 10.2 years European Americans (n = 902, n = 286 deceased), 5.2 years African Americans (n = 552, n = 93 deceased)] were examined using Cox proportional hazards models, independently and in models adjusted for CAC volume.
RESULTS - In European Americans, CAC density, like Agatston score and volume, was consistently associated with increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality (p ≤ 0.002) in models adjusted for age, sex, statin use, total cholesterol, HDL, systolic blood pressure, high blood pressure medication use, and current smoking. However, these associations were no longer significant when models were additionally adjusted for CAC volume. CAC density was not significantly associated with mortality, either alone or adjusted for CAC volume, in African Americans.
CONCLUSIONS - CAC density is not associated with mortality independent from CAC volume in European Americans and African Americans with type 2 diabetes.
Purpose - Current intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) drug regimens for retinoblastoma have ocular and vascular toxicities. No small-animal model of IAC exists to test drug efficacy and toxicity in vivo for IAC drug discovery. The purpose of this study was to develop a small-animal model of IAC and to analyze the ocular tissue penetration, distribution, pharmacokinetics, and treatment efficacy.
Methods - Following selective ophthalmic artery (OA) catheterization, melphalan (0.4 to 1.2 mg/kg) was injected. For pharmacokinetic studies, rabbits were euthanized at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, or 6 hours following intra-OA infusion. Drug levels were determined in vitreous, retina, and blood by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. To assess toxicity, angiograms, photography, fluorescein angiography, and histopathology were performed. For in situ tissue drug distribution, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) was performed. The tumor model was created by combined subretinal/intravitreal injection of human WERI-Rb1 retinoblastoma cells; the tumor was treated in vivo with intra-arterial melphalan or saline; and induction of tumor death was measured by cleaved caspase-3 activity.
Results - OA was selectively catheterized for 79 of 79 (100%) eyes in 47 of 47 (100%) rabbits, and melphalan was delivered successfully in 31 of 31 (100%) eyes, without evidence of vascular occlusion or retinal damage. For treated eyes, maximum concentration (Cmax) in the retina was 4.95 μM and area under the curve (AUC0→∞) was 5.26 μM·h. Treated eye vitreous Cmax was 2.24 μM and AUC0→∞ was 4.19 μM·h. Vitreous Cmax for the treated eye was >100-fold higher than for the untreated eye (P = 0.01), and AUC0→∞ was ∼50-fold higher (P = 0.01). Histology-directed MALDI-IMS revealed highest drug localization within the retina. Peripheral blood Cmax was 1.04 μM and AUC0→∞ was 2.07 μM·h. Combined subretinal/intravitreal injection of human retinoblastoma cells led to intra-retinal tumors and subretinal/vitreous seeds, which could be effectively killed in vivo with intra-arterial melphalan.
Conclusions - This first small-animal model of IAC has excellent vitreous and retinal tissue drug penetration, achieving levels sufficient to kill human retinoblastoma cells, facilitating future IAC drug discovery.
OBJECTIVE - Excess deposition of fat within and around vital organs and nonadipose tissues is hypothesized to contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We evaluated the association of abdominal intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) volume with coronary artery calcification in the CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) participants.
APPROACH AND RESULTS - We measured IMAT in the abdominal muscles, visceral adipose tissue and pericardial adipose tissue, and coronary artery calcification using computed tomography in 3051 CARDIA participants (56% women) at the CARDIA year 25 examination (2010-2011). Mean IMAT volume and mean IMAT/total muscle volume (IMAT normalized for muscle size) were calculated in a 10-mm block of slices centered at L3-L4. Multivariable analyses included potential confounders and traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. Compared with the lowest quartile, the upper quartile of abdominal IMAT volume was associated with higher coronary artery calcification prevalence (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.6 [1.2-2.1]) after adjusting for cardiovascular disease risk factors. Results were similar for highest versus lowest quartile of IMAT normalized to total muscle volume (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.5 [1.1-2.0]). Significant associations of higher IMAT and normalized IMAT with coronary artery calcification prevalence persisted when body mass index, visceral adipose tissue, or pericardial adipose tissue were added to the models.
CONCLUSIONS - In a large, community-based, cross-sectional study, we found that higher abdominal skeletal muscle adipose tissue volume was associated with subclinical atherosclerosis independent of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and other adipose depots.
© 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Purpose - To demonstrate the utility of a novel in vivo molecular imaging probe, HYPOX-4, to detect and image retinal hypoxia in real time, in a mouse model of retinal vein occlusion (RVO).
Methods - Retinal vein occlusion was achieved in adult mice by photodynamic retinal vein thrombosis (PRVT). One or two major retinal vein(s) was/were occluded in close proximity to the optic nerve head (ONH). In vivo imaging of retinal hypoxia was performed using, HYPOX-4, an imaging probe developed by our laboratory. Pimonidazole-adduct immunostaining was performed and used as a standard ex vivo method for the detection of retinal hypoxia in this mouse RVO model. The retinal vasculature was imaged using fluorescein angiography (FA) and isolectin B4 staining. Retinal thickness was assessed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) analysis.
Results - By application of the standard ex vivo pimonidazole-adduct immunostaining technique, retinal hypoxia was observed within 2 hours post-PRVT. The observed hypoxic retinal areas depended on whether one or two retinal vein(s) was/were occluded. Similar areas of hypoxia were imaged in vivo using HYPOX-4. Using OCT, retinal edema was observed immediately post-PRVT induction, resolving 8 days later. Nominal preretinal neovascularization was observed at 10 to 14 days post-RVO.
Conclusions - HYPOX-4 is an efficient probe capable of imaging retinal hypoxia in vivo, in RVO mice. Future studies will focus on its use in correlating retinal hypoxia to the onset and progression of ischemic vasculopathies.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS - There is strong evidence that fat accumulating in non-adipose sites, "ectopic fat", is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), including vascular calcification. Most previous studies of this association have assessed only a single ectopic fat depot. Therefore, our aim was to assess the association of total, regional, and ectopic fat with abdominal aorto-illiac calcification (AAC) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in 798 African ancestry men.
METHODS - Participants (mean age 62) were from the Tobago Bone Health Study cohort. Adiposity was assessed via clinical examination, dual x-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography (CT). Ectopic fat depots included: abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), liver attenuation, and calf intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT). Vascular calcification was assessed by CT and quantified as present versus absent. Associations were tested using multiple logistic regression adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Models of ectopic fat were additionally adjusted for total body fat and standing height.
RESULTS - All adiposity measures, except VAT, were associated with AAC. Lower liver attenuation or greater calf IMAT was associated with 1.2-1.3-fold increased odds of AAC (p < 0.03 for both), though calf IMAT was a stronger predictor than liver attenuation (p < 0.001) when entered in a single model. No ectopic fat measure was associated with CAC.
CONCLUSIONS - Greater adiposity in the skeletal muscle and liver, but not in the visceral compartment, was associated with increased odds of AAC in African ancestry men. These results highlight the potential importance of both quantity and location of adiposity accumulation throughout the body.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND & AIMS - While a recent meta-analysis of prospective studies reported that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality, limited and inconsistent data are available on the relation of coffee intake with subclinical disease. Thus, the aim of the present study was to see the association of coffee consumption with the prevalence of atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries in NHLBI Family Heart Study.
METHODS - In a cross-sectional design, we studied 1929 participants of the NHLBI Family Heart Study without known coronary heart disease. Coffee consumption was assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and coronary-artery calcium (CAC) was measured by cardiac computed tomography. We defined prevalent CAC as an Agatston score of ≥100 and used generalized estimating equations to calculate prevalence ratios of CAC as well as a sensitivity analysis at a range of cutpoints for CAC.
RESULTS - Mean age was 56.7 years and 59% of the study subjects were female. In adjusted analysis for age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, field center, and energy intake, prevalence ratio (95% CI) for CAC was 1.0 (reference), 0.92 (0.57-1.49), 1.34 (0.86-2.08), 1.30 (0.84-2.02), and 0.99 (0.60-1.64) for coffee consumption of almost never, <1/day, 1/day, 2-3/day, and ≥4 cups/day, respectively. In a sensitivity analysis, there was no evidence of association between coffee consumption and prevalent CAC when CAC cut points of 0, 50, 150, 200, and 300 were used.
CONCLUSIONS - These data do not provide evidence for an association between coffee consumption and prevalent CAC in adult men and women.
Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Short-term complications, particularly rehospitalization, after a diagnosis of takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) are poorly described. We sought to characterize the rates, causes, clinical associations, and prognostic implications of early rehospitalization in this patient population. We performed a retrospective observational study of all adult subjects diagnosed with TTC at an academic tertiary care hospital from 2005 to 2015. The primary outcome was rehospitalization within 30 days of index discharge. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test for association between clinical variables and rehospitalization. Association between rehospitalization and survival after index discharge was assessed as a secondary outcome using a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model. Two hundred sixty-three subjects met the inclusion criteria for the study. There were 38 rehospitalizations among 32 subjects (12%). Ninety-five percent of rehospitalizations were due to nonheart failure causes, and 76% were related to noncardiovascular complaints. In multivariable analysis, recent hospitalization before TTC diagnosis and increased length of index hospitalization were associated with greater risk of rehospitalization (odds ratio 4.58, 95% CI 1.97 to 10.65, p <0.001 and odds ratio 1.05, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.10, p = 0.026, respectively). Early rehospitalization after TTC was associated with decreased survival (hazard ratio 3.17, 95% CI 1.53 to 6.56, p = 0.002).
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Importance - Coronary artery calcium (CAC) is associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, prognostic data on CAC are limited in younger adults.
Objective - To determine if CAC in adults aged 32 to 46 years is associated with incident clinical CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality during 12.5 years of follow-up.
Design, Setting, and Participants - The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study is a prospective community-based study that recruited 5115 black and white participants aged 18 to 30 years from March 25, 1985, to June 7, 1986. The cohort has been under surveillance for 30 years, with CAC measured 15 (n = 3043), 20 (n = 3141), and 25 (n = 3189) years after recruitment. The mean follow-up period for incident events was 12.5 years, from the year 15 computed tomographic scan through August 31, 2014.
Main Outcomes and Measures - Incident CHD included fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome without myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, or CHD death. Incident CVD included CHD, stroke, heart failure, and peripheral arterial disease. Death included all causes. The probability of developing CAC by age 32 to 56 years was estimated using clinical risk factors measured 7 years apart between ages 18 and 38 years.
Results - At year 15 of the study among 3043 participants (mean [SD] age, 40.3 [3.6] years; 1383 men and 1660 women), 309 individuals (10.2%) had CAC, with a geometric mean Agatston score of 21.6 (interquartile range, 17.3-26.8). Participants were followed up for 12.5 years, with 57 incident CHD events and 108 incident CVD events observed. After adjusting for demographics, risk factors, and treatments, those with any CAC experienced a 5-fold increase in CHD events (hazard ratio [HR], 5.0; 95% CI, 2.8-8.7) and 3-fold increase in CVD events (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.9-4.7). Within CAC score strata of 1-19, 20-99, and 100 or more, the HRs for CHD were 2.6 (95% CI, 1.0-5.7), 5.8 (95% CI, 2.6-12.1), and 9.8 (95% CI, 4.5-20.5), respectively. A CAC score of 100 or more had an incidence of 22.4 deaths per 100 participants (HR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.5-10.0); of the 13 deaths in participants with a CAC score of 100 or more, 10 were adjudicated as CHD events. Risk factors for CVD in early adult life identified those above the median risk for developing CAC and, if applied, in a selective CAC screening strategy could reduce the number of people screened for CAC by 50% and the number imaged needed to find 1 person with CAC from 3.5 to 2.2.
Conclusions and Relevance - The presence of CAC among individuals aged between 32 and 46 years was associated with increased risk of fatal and nonfatal CHD during 12.5 years of follow-up. A CAC score of 100 or more was associated with early death. Adults younger than 50 years with any CAC, even with very low scores, identified on a computed tomographic scan are at elevated risk of clinical CHD, CVD, and death. Selective use of screening for CAC might be considered in individuals with risk factors in early adulthood to inform discussions about primary prevention.
BACKGROUND - The burden of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals is heritable and associated with elevated risk of developing clinical coronary heart disease. We sought to identify genetic variants in protein-coding regions associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and the risk of subsequent coronary heart disease.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We studied a total of 25 109 European ancestry and African ancestry participants with coronary artery calcification (CAC) measured by cardiac computed tomography and 52 869 participants with common carotid intima-media thickness measured by ultrasonography within the CHARGE Consortium (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology). Participants were genotyped for 247 870 DNA sequence variants (231 539 in exons) across the genome. A meta-analysis of exome-wide association studies was performed across cohorts for CAC and carotid intima-media thickness. APOB p.Arg3527Gln was associated with 4-fold excess CAC (P=3×10). The APOE ε2 allele (p.Arg176Cys) was associated with both 22.3% reduced CAC (P=1×10) and 1.4% reduced carotid intima-media thickness (P=4×10) in carriers compared with noncarriers. In secondary analyses conditioning on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, the ε2 protective association with CAC, although attenuated, remained strongly significant. Additionally, the presence of ε2 was associated with reduced risk for coronary heart disease (odds ratio 0.77; P=1×10).
CONCLUSIONS - Exome-wide association meta-analysis demonstrates that protein-coding variants in APOB and APOE associate with subclinical atherosclerosis. APOE ε2 represents the first significant association for multiple subclinical atherosclerosis traits across multiple ethnicities, as well as clinical coronary heart disease.
© 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.