The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
AIMS - Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays an important role in inflammatory diseases and is over-expressed in human atherosclerotic artery specimens. The present study investigated the role of TSLP in platelet activation and thrombosis models in vitro and in vivo, as well as the underlying mechanism and signaling pathway.
METHODS AND RESULTS - Western blotting and flow cytometry demonstrated that the TSLP receptor was expressed on murine platelets. According to flow cytometry, platelet stimulation with TSLP induced platelet degranulation and integrin αIIbβ3 activation. A TSLPR deficiency caused defective platelet aggregation, defective platelet secretion and markedly blunted thrombus growth in perfusion chambers at both low and high shear rates. TSLPR KO mice exhibited defective carotid artery thrombus formation after exposure to FeCl3. TSLP increased Akt phosphorylation, an effect that was abrogated by the PI3K inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. The PI3K inhibitors further diminished TSLP-induced platelet activation. TSLP-mediated platelet degranulation, integrin αIIbβ3 activation and Akt phosphorylation were blunted in platelets that lacked the TSLP receptor.
CONCLUSION - This study demonstrated that the functional TSLPR was surface-expressed on murine platelets. The inflammatory cytokine TSLP triggered platelet activation and thrombus formation via TSLP-dependent PI3K/Akt signaling, which suggests an important role for TSLP in linking vascular inflammation and thrombo-occlusive diseases.
© 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Approximately 75% of patients with breast cancer present hormone receptor-positive tumors. This subtype of breast cancer initially shows a high overall response rate to hormonal treatments. However, resistance eventually develops, resulting in tumor progression. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway regulates several cellular functions in cancer such as cell growth, survival, and proliferation. In addition, a high activation level of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is related to resistance to conventional chemotherapy and hormone therapy. The mTOR inhibitor everolimus, in combination with hormonal treatments, has led to excellent results in progression-free survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer resistant to hormone therapies. Therefore, everolimus has entered the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines 2012 and its combination with exemestane was approved recently by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency. This is the first time that a drug will have been approved for the restoration of hormone sensitivity in breast cancer.
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an increasingly recognized clinical entity. The optimal initial treatment strategy in adults with EoE remains controversial. The aim of this study was to employ a decision analysis model to determine the less costly option between the two most commonly employed treatment strategies in EoE. We constructed a model for an index case of a patient with biopsy-proven EoE who continues to be symptomatic despite proton-pump inhibitor therapy. The following treatment strategies were included: (i) swallowed fluticasone inhaler (followed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy [EGD] with dilation if ineffective); and (ii) EGD with dilation (followed by swallowed fluticasone inhaler if ineffective). The time horizon was 1 year. The model focused on cost analysis of initial treatment strategies. The perspective of the healthcare payer was used. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the robustness of the model. For every patient whose symptoms improved or resolved with the strategy of fluticasone first followed by EGD, if necessary, it cost an average of $1078. Similarly, it cost an average of $1171 per patient if EGD with dilation was employed first. Sensitivity analyses indicated that initial treatment with fluticasone was the less costly strategy to improve dysphagia symptoms as long as the effectiveness of fluticasone remains at or above 0.62. Swallowed fluticasone inhaler (followed by EGD with dilation if necessary) is the more economical initial strategy when compared with EGD with dilation first.
© 2012 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.
In sensory circuits of the brain, developmental changes in the expression and modulation of voltage-gated ion channels are a common occurrence, but such changes are often difficult to assign to clear functional roles. We have explored this issue in the binaural neurons of the medial superior olive (MSO), whose temporal precision in detecting the coincidence of binaural inputs dictates the resolution of azimuthal sound localization. We show that in MSO principal neurons of gerbils during the first week of hearing, a hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) progressively undergoes a 13-fold increase in maximal conductance, a >10-fold acceleration of kinetics, and, most surprisingly, a 30 mV depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of activation. This period is associated with an upregulation of the hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel subunits HCN1, HCN2, and HCN4 in the MSO, but only HCN1 and HCN4 were expressed strongly in principal neurons. I(h) recorded in nucleated patches from electrophysiologically mature MSO neurons (>P18) exhibited kinetics and an activation range nearly identical to the I(h) found in whole-cell recordings before hearing onset. These results indicate that the developmental changes in I(h) in MSO neurons can be explained predominantly by modulation from diffusible intracellular factors, and not changes in channel subunit composition. The exceptionally large modulatory changes in I(h), together with refinements in synaptic properties transform the coding strategy from one of summation and integration to the submillisecond coincidence detection known to be required for transmission of sound localization cues.
The requirement for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in the establishment of cell polarity and motility in a number of cell types has recently come into question. In this study, we demonstrate that inhibition of PI3K by wortmannin in neutrophil-like differentiated HL60 cells expressing CXCR2 resulted in reduced cell motility but normal chemotaxis in response to a gradient of CXCL8. However, wortmannin inhibition of PI3K did impair the ability of cells to re-orient their polarity and respond quickly to a change in the direction of the CXCL8 gradient. We hypothesized that Src-regulated ELMO-Dock2-Rac2 activation mediates chemotaxis in the absence of PI3K activity. Inhibition of Src with the small molecule inhibitor, PP2, or inhibition of Dock2 by shRNA knockdown confirmed the functional role of Src and Dock2 in regulating chemotaxis when PI3K was inhibited. Moreover, neutrophils isolated from bone marrow of hck(-/-)fgr(-/-)lyn(-/-) mice exhibited much more severe inhibition of chemotaxis when PI3K was blocked with wortmannin as compared with neutrophils isolated from bone marrow of wild-type mice. Thus, PI3K and Src-ELMO-Dock2 pathways work in parallel to activate Rac2 and modulate chemotaxis in response to a CXCL8 gradient in neutrophils.
The chemotaxis of phosphoinositide kinase-3 (PI3K)-inhibited differentiated HL-60 cells stably expressing CXCR2 was studied in a microfluidic switching gradient device that can generate stable and well-defined forward and reverse gradients. Wortmannin, a widely used PI3K inhibitor, was added during cell preparation and the experiment process. The studies quantify the chemotaxis gradient and the effects of a change in the direction of a CXCL-8 gradient on cell migration. PI3K-inhibited HL-60 cells migrated more efficiently toward the gradient before gradient switching than after, as measured by the effective chemotactic index. The inhibited HL-60 cells also showed that inadequate polarization, slower response time, and reduced cell populations can follow the gradient change. We observed that the role of PI3K in directing cellular response to gradient reversal was important in cell polarization and directional sensing associated with gradient switching.
BACKGROUND - Adult endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) reduce myocardial infarct size and improve postischemic myocardial function. We have recently shown that clonal embryonic EPCs (eEPCs), derived from 7.5-day-old mice, home specifically to hypoxic areas in tumor metastasis mouse models but spare normal organs and do not form carcinomas. Here, we assessed the potential of eEPCs to limit organ dysfunction after ischemia and reperfusion in a preclinical pig model.
METHODS AND RESULTS - Pigs were subjected to ischemia (60-minute left anterior descending [LAD] artery occlusion) and reperfusion (7 days). At the end of ischemia, we applied medium with or without 5 x 10(6) eEPCs by either pressure-regulated retroinfusion or intravenous transfusion. One hour after reperfusion, 99Tc-labeled eEPCs engrafted to a 6-fold higher extent in the ischemic myocardium after retroinfusion than after intravenous application. Regional myocardial function (subendocardial segment shortening [SES] at 150/min, given in percent of nonischemic circumflex region) and infarct size (TTC viability and Methylene-blue exclusion) were determined 24 hours and 7 days later. Compared with medium-treated animals, retroinfusion of eEPCs decreased infarct size (35+/-4% versus 51+/-6%) and improved regional myocardial reserve of the apical LAD region (SES 31+/-4% versus 6+/-8%), whereas intravenous application displayed a less pronounced effect (infarct size 44+/-4%; SES 12+/-3%). Retroinfusion of an equal amount of neonatal coronary endothelial cells (rat) did not affect infarct size (49+/-5%) nor regional myocardial reserve (16+/-7%). The eEPC-dependent effect was detected at 24 hours of reperfusion (infarct size 34+/-7% versus 58+/-6%) and was sensitive to Wortmannin coapplication (50+/-5%).
CONCLUSIONS - Our findings show that eEPCs reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury in a preclinical pig model. The rapid effect (as early as 24 hours) indicates a role for enzyme-mediated cardioprotection, which involves, at least in part, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway.
Growth factor enhancement of endothelial cell viability occurs through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt-mediated inhibition of apoptosis. The PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathway was activated by both vascular endothelial growth factor and ionizing radiation. Radiation- and vascular endothelial growth factor-induced phosphorylation of Akt was inhibited by PI3K antagonists. To determine whether this signal transduction pathway represents a therapeutic target in tumor vascular endothelium, we examined the effects of the PI3K inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 on irradiated endothelium. Wortmannin and LY294002 enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity in endothelial cells. Tumor vascular window and Doppler ultrasound showed that PI3K antagonists enhanced radiation-induced destruction of tumor blood vessels. Tumor growth delay was significantly increased after treatment with LY294002 followed by irradiation as compared with either agent alone. PI3K in tumor vascular endothelium is a potential therapeutic target to enhance the efficacy of ionizing radiation.
Alterations in endothelial cell (EC) signaling could serve as a marker of effective antiangiogenic therapy. We determined the effect of an antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor, SU6668, on tumor EC signaling in liver metastases in mice. In vitro immunofluorescence verified that pretreatment of ECs with SU6668 before exposure to VEGF decreased in vitro phosphorylation of Erk and Akt. Using double-fluorescence immunohistochemistry, phosphorylated Erk and Akt were constitutively expressed in ECs in liver metastases in untreated mice, but SU6668 blocked activation of these signaling intermediates. Determining the activation status of the Erk and Akt signaling pathways in tumor ECs may serve as a surrogate marker for the effectiveness of antiangiogenic regimens.
Phagosomes acquire their microbicidal properties by fusion with lysosomes. Products of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) are required for phagosome formation, but their role in maturation is unknown. Using chimeric fluorescent proteins encoding tandem FYVE domains, we found that phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PIP) accumulates greatly but transiently on the phagosomal membrane. Unlike the 3'-phosphoinositides generated by class I PI 3-kinases which are evident in the nascent phagosomal cup, PI(3)P is only detectable after the phagosome has sealed. The class III PI 3-kinase VPS34 was found to be responsible for PI(3)P synthesis and essential for phagolysosome formation. In contrast, selective ablation of class I PI 3-kinase revealed that optimal phagocytosis, but not maturation, requires this type of enzyme. These results highlight the differential functional role of the two families of kinases, and raise the possibility that PI(3)P production by VPS34 may be targeted during the maturation arrest induced by some intracellular parasites.