The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
INTRODUCTION - The characteristic features of Papanicolaou (Pap) tests collected from female-to-male (FTM) transgender patients on androgen therapy have not been well defined in the literature. FTM transgender patients require cervical cancer screening with the same recommended frequency as cis-gender females. Dysplasia remains challenging to differentiate from atrophy. Without pertinent history, the atrophic findings in younger transgender patients can be misinterpreted as high-grade dysplasia.
METHODS - A review of all cervical Pap tests of transgender patients receiving androgen therapy (2010-2017) was performed. Bethesda diagnosis, cytomorphological features, HPV testing and cervical biopsy results were reviewed.
RESULTS - Eleven transgender patients receiving androgen therapy were identified with 23 cervical Pap tests, 11 HPV tests and five cervical biopsies performed. A review of the Pap tests demonstrated: 57% negative for intraepithelial lesion; 13% unsatisfactory; 13% atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; 13% atypical squamous cells - cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; and 4% high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. The rates of abnormal tests were higher than our age-matched cis-gender atrophic cohort rates of unsatisfactory (0.5%), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (7%), atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (0%) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (0.5%). The cytological findings from liquid-based preparations included dispersed and clustered parabasal-type cells, scattered degenerated cells, smooth evenly dispersed chromatin, and occasional mild nuclear enlargement and irregularity. Dysplastic cells had larger nuclei, hyperchromatic clumped chromatin, and more irregular nuclear contours.
CONCLUSIONS - The evaluation of dysplasia can be challenging on Pap tests from transgender patients on androgen therapy. The cohort evaluated had higher rates of unsatisfactory and abnormal Pap tests. Pathologists should be familiar with the distinctive cytomorphological changes in the Pap tests from patients on androgen therapy to evaluate them appropriately.
© 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Long bone strength is determined by its outer shell (cortical bone), which forms by coalescence of thin trabeculae at the metaphysis (corticalization), but the factors that control this process are unknown. Here we show that SOCS3-dependent cytokine expression regulates bone corticalization. Young male and female Dmp1Cre.Socs3 mice, in which SOCS3 has been ablated in osteocytes, have high trabecular bone volume and poorly defined metaphyseal cortices. After puberty, male mice recover, but female corticalization is still impaired, leading to a lasting defect in bone strength. The phenotype depends on sex-steroid hormones: dihydrotestosterone treatment of gonadectomized female Dmp1Cre.Socs3 mice restores normal cortical morphology, whereas in males, estradiol treatment, or IL-6 deletion, recapitulates the female phenotype. This suggests that androgen action promotes metaphyseal corticalization, at least in part, via IL-6 signaling.The strength of long bones is determined by coalescence of trabeculae during corticalization. Here the authors show that this process is regulated by SOCS3 via a mechanism dependent on IL-6 and expression of sex hormones.
Androgens regulate the proliferation and differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells, including prostate cancer (PCa) cells in a context-dependent manner. Androgens and androgen receptor (AR) do not invariably promote cell proliferation; in the normal adult, endogenous stromal and epithelial AR activation maintains differentiation and inhibits organ growth. In the current study, we report that activation of AR differentially regulates the proliferation of human prostate epithelial progenitor cells, NHPrE1, in vitro and in vivo. Inducing AR signaling in NHPrE1 cells suppressed cell proliferation in vitro, concomitant with a reduction in MYC expression. However, ectopic expression of AR in vivo stimulated cell proliferation and induced development of invasive PCa in tissue recombinants consisting of NHPrE1/AR cells and rat urogenital mesenchymal (UGM) cells, engrafted under renal capsule of adult male athymic mice. Expression of MYC increased in the NHPrE1/AR recombinant tissues, in contrast to the reduction seen in vitro. The inhibitory effect of AR signaling on cell proliferation in vitro were reduced by co-culturing NHPrE1/AR epithelial cells with prostatic stromal cells. In conclusion, these studies revealed that AR signaling differentially regulates proliferation of human prostatic epithelia cells in vitro and in vivo through mechanisms involving stromal/epithelial interactions.
Numerous studies indicate that androgen receptor splice variants (ARVs) play a critical role in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), including the resistance to the new generation of inhibitors of androgen receptor (AR) action. Previously, we demonstrated that activation of NF-κB signaling increases ARVs expression in prostate cancer (PC) cells, thereby promoting progression to CRPC. However, it is unclear how NF-κB signaling is activated in CRPC. In this study, we report that long-term treatment with anti-androgens increases a neuroendocrine (NE) hormone - gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptor (GRP-R) expression in PC cells. In addition, activation of GRP/GRP-R signaling increases ARVs expression through activating NF-κB signaling. This results in an androgen-dependent tumor progressing to a castrate resistant tumor. The knock-down of AR-V7 restores sensitivity to antiandrogens of PC cells over-expressing the GRP/GRP-R signaling pathway. These findings strongly indicate that the axis of Androgen-Deprivation Therapy (ADT) induces GRP/GRP-R activity, activation NF-κB and increased levels of AR-V7 expression resulting in progression to CRPC. Both prostate adenocarcinoma and small cell NE prostate cancer express GRP-R. Since the GRP-R is clinically targetable by analogue-based approach, this provides a novel therapeutic approach to treat advanced CRPC.
Aromatase is the cytochrome P450 enzyme that cleaves the C10-C19 carbon-carbon bond of androgens to form estrogens, in a three-step process. Compound I (FeO(3+)) and ferric peroxide (FeO2(-)) have both been proposed in the literature as the active iron species in the third step, yielding an estrogen and formic acid. Incubation of purified aromatase with its 19-deutero-19-oxo androgen substrate was performed in the presence of (18)O2, and the products were derivatized using a novel diazo reagent. Analysis of the products by high-resolution mass spectrometry showed a lack of (18)O incorporation in the product formic acid, supporting only the Compound I pathway. Furthermore, a new androgen 19-carboxylic acid product was identified. The rates of nonenzymatic hydration of the 19-oxo androgen and dehydration of the 19,19-gem-diol were shown to be catalytically competent. Thus, the evidence supports Compound I and not ferric peroxide as the active iron species in the third step of the steroid aromatase reaction.
The androgen receptor (AR) in stromal cells contributes significantly to the development and growth of prostate during fetal stages as well as during prostate carcinogenesis and cancer progression. During prostate development, stromal AR induces and promotes epithelial cell growth, as observed from tissue recombinant and mouse knockout studies. During prostate carcinogenesis and progression, the stromal cells begin to lose AR expression as early as at the stage of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. The extent of loss of stromal AR is directly proportional to the degree of differentiation (Gleason grade) and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). Co-culture studies suggested that stromal AR inhibits the growth of malignant epithelial cells, possibly through expression of certain paracrine factors in the presence of androgens. This functional reversal of stromal AR, from growth promotion during fetal prostate development to mediating certain growth-inhibiting effects in cancer, explains to some extent the reason that loss of AR expression in stromal cells may be crucial for development of resistance to androgen ablation therapy for PCa. From a translational perspective, it generates the need to re-examine the current therapeutic options and opens a fundamental new direction for therapeutic interventions, especially in advanced PCa.
Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
It has been postulated that prostatic carcinogenesis is androgen dependent and that androgens mediate their effects primarily through epithelial cells; however, definitive proof of androgen hormone action in prostate cancer (PRCA) progression is lacking. Here we demonstrate through genetic loss of function experiments that PRCA progression is androgen dependent and that androgen dependency occurs via prostatic stromal androgen receptors (AR) but not epithelial AR. Utilizing tissue recombination models of prostatic carcinogenesis, loss of AR function was evaluated by surgical castration or genetic deletion. Loss of AR function prevented prostatic carcinogenesis, malignant transformation and metastasis. Tissue-specific evaluation of androgen hormone action demonstrated that epithelial AR was not necessary for PRCA progression, whereas stromal AR was essential for PRCA progression, malignant transformation and metastasis. Stromal AR was not necessary for prostatic maintenance, suggesting that the lack of cancer progression due to stromal AR deletion was not related to altered prostatic homeostasis. Gene expression analysis identified numerous androgen-regulated stromal factors. Four candidate stromal AR-regulated genes were secreted growth factors: fibroblast growth factors-2, -7, -10 and hepatocyte growth factor which were significantly affected by androgens and anti-androgens in stromal cells grown in vitro. These data support the concept that androgens are necessary for PRCA progression and that the androgen-regulated stromal microenvironment is essential to carcinogenesis, malignant transformation and metastasis and may serve as a potential target in the prevention of PRCA.
BACKGROUND - The natriuretic peptides play an important role in salt homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. It has been suggested that obesity promotes a relative natriuretic peptide deficiency, but this has been a variable finding in prior studies and the cause is unknown.
AIM - The aim of this study was to examine the association between obesity and natriuretic peptide levels and evaluate the role of hyperinsulinemia and testosterone as mediators of this interaction.
METHODS - We studied 7770 individuals from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 3833, 54% women) and the Malmö Diet and Cancer study (n = 3918, 60% women). We examined the relation of plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels (N-BNP) with obesity, insulin resistance, and various metabolic subtypes.
RESULTS - Obesity was associated with 6-20% lower levels of N-BNP (P < 0.001 in Framingham, P = 0.001 in Malmö), whereas insulin resistance was associated with 10-30% lower levels of N-BNP (P < 0.001 in both cohorts). Individuals with obesity who were insulin sensitive had only modest reductions in N-BNP compared with nonobese, insulin-sensitive individuals. On the other hand, individuals who were nonobese but insulin resistant had 26% lower N-BNP in Framingham (P < 0.001) and 10% lower N-BNP in Malmö (P < 0.001), compared with nonobese and insulin-sensitive individuals. Adjustment for serum-free testosterone did not alter these associations.
CONCLUSIONS - In both nonobese and obese individuals, insulin resistance is associated with lower natriuretic peptide levels. The relative natriuretic peptide deficiency seen in obesity could be partly attributable to insulin resistance, and could be one mechanism by which insulin resistance promotes hypertension.
CYP3A4, an important drug-metabolizing enzyme, is known to have genetic variants. We have previously reported that CYP3A4 variants such as CYP3A4.2, 7, 16, and 18 show different enzymatic kinetics from CYP3A4.1 (wild type). In this study, we quantitatively investigated the inhibition kinetics of two typical inhibitors, itraconazole (ITCZ) and cimetidine (CMD), on CYP3A4 variants and evaluated whether the genetic variation leads to interindividual differences in the extent of CYP3A4-mediated drug interactions. The inhibitory profiles of ITCZ and CMD on the metabolism of testosterone (TST) were analyzed by using recombinant CYP3A4 variants. The genetic variation of CYP3A4 significantly affected the inhibition profiles of the two inhibitors. In CYP3A4.7, the K(i) value for ITCZ was 2.4-fold higher than that for the wild-type enzyme, whereas the K(i) value for CMD was 0.64-fold lower. In CYP3A4.16, the K(i) value for ITCZ was 0.54-fold lower than that for wild-type CYP3A4, whereas the K(i) value for CMD was 3.2-fold higher. The influence of other genetic variations also differed between the two inhibitors. Docking simulations could explain the changes in the K(i) values, based on the accessibility of TST and inhibitors to the heme moiety of the CYP3A4 molecule. In conclusion, the inhibitory effects of an inhibitor differ among CYP3A4 variants, suggesting that the genetic variation of CYP3A4 may contribute, at least in part, to interindividual differences in drug interactions mediated by CYP3A4 inhibition, and the pattern of the influences of genetic variation differs among inhibitors as well as substrates.