The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
Androgen receptor (AR) action throughout prostate development and in maintenance of the prostatic epithelium is partly controlled by interactions between AR and forkhead box (FOX) transcription factors, particularly FOXA1. We sought to identity additional FOXA1 binding partners that may mediate prostate-specific gene expression. Here we identify the nuclear factor I (NFI) family of transcription factors as novel FOXA1 binding proteins. All four family members (NFIA, NFIB, NFIC, and NFIX) can interact with FOXA1, and knockdown studies in androgen-dependent LNCaP cells determined that modulating expression of NFI family members results in changes in AR target gene expression. This effect is probably mediated by binding of NFI family members to AR target gene promoters, because chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies found that NFIB bound to the prostate-specific antigen enhancer. Förster resonance energy transfer studies revealed that FOXA1 is capable of bringing AR and NFIX into proximity, indicating that FOXA1 facilitates the AR and NFI interaction by bridging the complex. To determine the extent to which NFI family members regulate AR/FOXA1 target genes, motif analysis of publicly available data for ChIP followed by sequencing was undertaken. This analysis revealed that 34.4% of peaks bound by AR and FOXA1 contain NFI binding sites. Validation of 8 of these peaks by ChIP revealed that NFI family members can bind 6 of these predicted genomic elements, and 4 of the 8 associated genes undergo gene expression changes as a result of individual NFI knockdown. These observations suggest that NFI regulation of FOXA1/AR action is a frequent event, with individual family members playing distinct roles in AR target gene expression.
The androgen receptor (AR) regulates growth and progression of androgen-dependent as well as androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists have been reported to reduce AR activation in androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells. To determine whether PPARγ ligands are equally effective at inhibiting AR activity in androgen-independent prostate cancer, we examined the effect of the PPARγ ligands ciglitazone and rosiglitazone on C4-2 cells, an androgen- independent derivative of the LNCaP cell line. Luciferase-based reporter assays and Western blot analysis demonstrated that PPARγ ligand reduced dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced increases in AR activity in LNCaP cells. However, in C4-2 cells, these compounds increased DHT-induced AR driven luciferase activity. In addition, ciglitazone did not significantly alter DHT-mediated increases in prostate specific antigen (PSA) protein or mRNA levels within C4-2 cells. siRNA-based experiments demonstrated that the ciglitazone-induced regulation of AR activity observed in C4-2 cells was dependent on the presence of PPARγ. Furthermore, overexpression of the AR corepressor cyclin D1 inhibited the ability of ciglitazone to induce AR luciferase activity in C4-2 cells. Thus, our data suggest that both PPARγ and cyclin D1 levels influence the ability of ciglitazone to differentially regulate AR signaling in androgen-independent C4-2 prostate cancer cells.
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - The androgen-regulated probasin (PB) promoter has been used extensively to target transgenes to the prostate in transgenic mice; however, limited data exist on the mechanism that dictates prostate-specific gene expression. Tissue-specific gene expression involves synergistic effects among transcription factors associated in a complex bound to cis-acting DNA elements.
METHODS - Using comprehensive linker scan mutagenesis, enzyme mobility shift and supershift assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and transgenic animal studies, we have extensively characterized the prostate-specific PB promoter.
RESULTS - We identified a series of nonreceptor transcription factors that are bound to the prostate-specific rat PB promoter. These factors include several ubiquitously distributed proteins known to participate in steroid receptor-mediated transcription. In addition, we identified two tissue-specific DNA elements that are crucial in directing prostate-specific PB expression, and confirmed the functional importance of both elements in transgenic animal studies. These two elements are functionally interchangeable and can be bound by multiple protein complexes, including the forkhead transcription factor FoxA1, a "pioneer factor" that has a restricted distribution to some cells type that are ectoderm and endoderm in origin. Using transgenic mice, we further demonstrate that the minimal PB promoter region (-244/-96 bp) that encompasses these tissue-specific elements results in prostate-specific gene expression in transgenic mice, contains androgen receptor and FoxA1-binding sites, as well as ubiquitous transcription factor binding sites.
CONCLUSION - We propose that these sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins, including tissue-restricted and ubiquitous factors, create the first level of transcriptional control, which responds to intracellular pathways that directs prostate-specific gene expression.
The forkhead protein A1 (FoxA1) is critical for the androgenic regulation of prostate-specific promoters. Prostate tissue rescued from FoxA1 knockout mice exhibits abnormal prostate development, typified by the absence of expression of differentiation markers and inability to engage in secretion. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and coimmunoprecipitation studies revealed that FoxA1 is one of the earliest transcription factors that binds to prostate-specific promoters, and that a direct protein-protein interaction occurs between FoxA1 and androgen receptor. Interestingly, evidence of the interaction of FoxA1 with other transcription factors is lacking. The upstream stimulatory factor 2 (USF2), an E-box-binding transcription factor of the basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine-zipper family, binds to a consensus DNA sequence similar to FoxA1. Our in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate the binding of USF2 to prostate-specific gene promoters including the probasin promoter, spermine-binding protein promoter, and prostate-specific antigen core enhancer. Furthermore, we show a direct physical interaction between FoxA1 and USF2 through the use of immunoprecipitation and glutathione-S-transferase pull-down assays. This interaction is mediated via the forkhead DNA-binding domain of FoxA1 and the DNA-binding domain of USF2. In summary, these data indicate that USF2 is one of the components of the FoxA1/androgen receptor transcriptional protein complex that contributes to the expression of androgen-regulated and prostate-specific genes.
Cell cultures representing different stages of prostatic carcinoma will be a useful tool allowing a more complete understanding of the role of individual genes in tumorigenesis. We used the androgen-regulated probasin promoter linked to the neomycin phosphotransferase (Neo) gene, to generate the ARR(2)PBneo transgenic mouse model. Development was normal and all six ARR(2)PBneo transgenic founder lines expressed the Neo gene in a prostate-specific manner. Line C, which expressed high levels of neo, was crossbred to LPB-Tag 12T-7f transgenic mice (in which the SV40 large T antigen (Tag) was targeted to the prostate by the large probasin (LPB) promoter). Three bigenic males (carrying both Neo and Tag transgenes) were identified. Prostatic lesions developed in these mice in a predictable and heritable manner, indicating that Neo did not alter Tag-induced prostate tumor development and progression. Three separate NeoTag epithelial cell strains were established from three bigenic mice. G418 selection was used to obtain immortalized epithelial cells in culture. Selected cells expressed the Neo and Tag transgenes, cytokeratins 8 and 18, and were androgen responsive for growth. To determine if these NeoTag cells maintained a similar in vivo phenotype to the 12T-7f transgenic line, tissue recombinations were made with rat urogenital sinus mesenchyme (rUGM) and grafted under the renal capsule of male nude mouse hosts. In recombinants, the three NeoTag strains developed PIN lesions and/or more extensive adenocarcinoma than seen in the 12T-7f mouse. Androgen ablation demonstrated that the grafts were androgen responsive. NeoTag cells grafted without rUGM developed undifferentiated adenocarcinoma demonstrating that prostatic stroma dictates the glandular architecture seen in the well-differentiated adenocarcinoma.
PURPOSE - Animal models that mimic this hormone refractory prostate cancer may be useful for developing and testing novel treatment strategies.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Using the prostate of the 12T-10 transgenic mouse an allograft model was established by transplantation into a nude mouse. To our knowledge we describe the first allograft model derived from the primary prostate tumor of a transgenic mouse.
RESULTS - The primary tumor progressed from high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasm to invasive, undifferentiated and metastatic cancer with loss of androgen receptor expression. After 10 passages in nude mice the allograft retained the same histological and immunohistochemical features as the primary tumors, including neuroendocrine differentiation. The allograft demonstrated androgen independent growth and metastases to liver and lung, paralleling tumor behavior in the original transgenic line. Cytogenetic characterization of the allograft revealed consistent chromosomal abnormalities for multiple in vivo passages.
CONCLUSIONS - This allograft model may give insight into the mechanism by which human prostate cancer progresses to an androgen independent state and provide a system for testing drugs that can inhibit this disease.
Previously we reported that a small rat probasin (PB) promoter (-426 to +28 bp, -426PB) would target androgen- regulated prostate-specific expression in transgenic mice. Later we demonstrated that a large (L) fragment (-10806 to +28 bp, LPB) of the PB promoter would target high levels of gene expression to the prostate in transgenic mice. These results suggested that optimal transcription of the PB gene depended on the presence of enhancer regions upstream of the proximal promoter. To identify these enhancers, the LPB fragment was sequenced and the enhancer activities of restriction fragments were characterized in cell lines. Two nonconventional androgen receptor binding sites (ARBSs), ARBS-3 and ARBS-4, in an upstream androgen-dependent enhancer of the PB gene were identified. One site functions as a weak steroid response element in both LNCaP and MCF-7 cells; another site acts as a strong steroid response element, which preferentially responds to androgen and is preferentially activated in LNCaP cells. These two new ARBSs interact in a cooperative manner with the previously described androgen response region (ARR) (defined by -244 to -96 bp) that contains ARBS-1; ARBS-2; and two lower-affinity ARR binding sites, G-1 and G-2 sites. We conclude that the context in which the ARR binding sites are present is pivotal in determining their effect on transcriptional regulation. Thus, the -705/+28 PB promoter contains a second ARR, PB enhancer element (-705/-426 PB), in addition to the first described ARR. The PB promoter creates a model that contains six AR binding sites that function in a cooperative manner for maximum androgen-regulated prostate-specific gene transcription.
p202, an interferon (IFN) inducible protein, arrests cell cycle at G1 phase leading to cell growth retardation. We previously showed that ectopic expression of p202 in human prostate cancer cells renders growth inhibition and suppression of transformation phenotype in vitro. In this report, we showed that prostate cancer cells with stable expression of p202 were less tumorigenic than the parental cells. The antitumor activity of p202 was further demonstrated by an ex vivo treatment of prostate cancer cells with p202 expression vector that showed significant tumor suppression in mouse xenograft model. Importantly, to achieve a prostate-specific antitumor effect by p202, we employed a prostate-specific probasin (ARR2PB) gene promoter to direct p202 expression (ARR2PB-p202) in an androgen receptor (AR)-positive manner. The ARR2PB-p202/liposome complex was systemically administered into mice bearing orthotopic AR-positive prostate tumors. We showed that parenteral administration of an ARR2PB-p202/liposome preparation led to prostate-specific p202 expression and tumor suppression in orthotopic prostate cancer xenograft model. Furthermore, with DNA array technique, we showed that the expression of p202 was accompanied by downregulation of G2/M phase cell-cycle regulators, cyclin B, and p55cdc. Together, our results suggest that p202 suppresses prostate tumor growth, and that a prostate-specific antitumor effect can be achieved by systemic administration of liposome-mediated delivery of ARR2PB-p202.
Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Androgens and mesenchymal factors are essential extracellular signals for the development as well as the functional activity of the prostate epithelium. Little is known of the intraepithelial determinants that are involved in prostatic differentiation. Here we found that hepatocyte nuclear factor-3 alpha (HNF-3 alpha), an endoderm developmental factor, is essential for androgen receptor (AR)-mediated prostatic gene activation. Two HNF-3 cis-regulatory elements were identified in the rat probasin (PB) gene promoter, each immediately adjacent to an androgen response element. Remarkably, similar organization of HNF-3 and AR binding sites was observed in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) gene core enhancer, suggesting a common functional mechanism. Mutations that disrupt these HNF-3 motifs significantly abolished the maximal androgen induction of PB and PSA activities. Overexpressing a mutant HNF-3 alpha deleted in the C-terminal region inhibited the androgen-induced promoter activity in LNCaP cells where endogenous HNF-3 alpha is expressed. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed in vivo that the occupancy of HNF-3 alpha on PSA enhancer can occur in an androgen-depleted condition, and before the recruitment of ligand-bound AR. A physical interaction of HNF-3 alpha and AR was detected through immunoprecipitation and confirmed by glutathione-S-transferase pull-down. This interaction is directly mediated through the DNA-binding domain/hinge region of AR and the forkhead domain of HNF-3 alpha. In addition, strong HNF-3 alpha expression, but not HNF-3 beta or HNF-3 gamma, is detected in both human and mouse prostatic epithelial cells where markers (PSA and PB) of differentiation are expressed. Taken together, these data support a model in which regulatory cues from the cell lineage and the extracellular environment coordinately establish the prostatic differentiated response.
Changes in expression of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolizing enzymes are implicated in the development and progression of human prostate carcinoma (Pca). Transgenic mouse models of Pca that progress from high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) to invasive and metastatic carcinoma could facilitate study of the regulation and function of these genes in Pca progression. Herein we characterize the AA-metabolizing enzymes in transgenic mice established with a prostate epithelial-specific long probasin promoter and the SV40 large T antigen (LPB-Tag mice) that develop extensive HGPIN and invasive and metastatic carcinoma with neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation. Murine 8-lipoxygenase (8-LOX), homologue of the 15-LOX-2 enzyme that is expressed in benign human prostatic epithelium and reduced in Pca, was not detected in wild-type or LPB-Tag prostates as determined by enzyme assay, reverse transcription-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. The most prominent AA metabolite in mouse prostate was 12-HETE. Wild-type prostate (dorsolateral lobe) converted 1.6 +/- 0.5% [(14)C]AA to 12-HETE (n = 7), and this increased to 8.0 +/- 4.4% conversion in LPB-Tag mice with HGPIN (n = 13). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and immunostaining correlated the increased 12-HETE synthesis with increased neoplastic epithelial expression of 12/15-LOX, the leukocyte-type (L) of 12-LOX and the murine homologue of human 15-LOX-1. Immunostaining showed increased L12-LOX in invasive carcinoma and approximately one-half of metastatic foci. COX-2 mRNA was detectable in neoplastic prostates with HGPIN but not in wild-type prostate. By immunostaining, COX-2 was increased in the neoplastic epithelium of HGPIN but was absent in foci of invasion and metastases. We conclude that (a) AA metabolism in wild-type mouse prostate differs from humans in the basal expression of LOXs (15-LOX-2 in human, absence of its 8-LOX homologue in mouse prostate); (b) increased expression of 12/15-LOX in HGPIN and invasive carcinoma of the LPB-Tag model is similar to the increased 15-LOX-1 in high-grade human Pca; and (c) the LPB-Tag model shows increased COX-2 in HGPIN, and therefore, it may allow additional definition of the role of this enzyme in the subset of human HGPINs or other precursor lesions that are COX-2 positive, as well as investigation of its contribution to neoplastic cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis in Pca.