The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
Antitumor nitrogen mustards, such as bis(2-chloroethyl)methylamine (mechlorethamine), are useful chemotherapeutic agents with a long history of clinical application. The antitumor effects of nitrogen mustards are attributed to their ability to induce DNA-DNA and DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs) that block DNA replication. In the present work, a mass spectrometry-based methodology was employed to characterize in vivo DNA-protein cross-linking following treatment of human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells with cytotoxic concentrations of mechlorethamine. A combination of mass spectrometry-based proteomics and immunological detection was used to identify 38 nuclear proteins that were covalently cross-linked to chromosomal DNA following treatment with mechlorethamine. Isotope dilution HPLC-ESI(+)-MS/MS analysis of total proteolytic digests revealed a concentration-dependent formation of N-[2-(S-cysteinyl)ethyl]-N-[2-(guan-7-yl)ethyl]methylamine (Cys-N7G-EMA) conjugates, indicating that mechlorethamine cross-links cysteine thiols within proteins to N-7 positions of guanine in DNA.
DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) are the most toxic lesions induced by chemotherapeutic agents such as mitomycin C and cisplatin. By covalently linking both DNA strands, ICLs prevent DNA melting, transcription, and replication. Studies on ICL signaling and repair have been limited, because these drugs generate additional DNA lesions that trigger checkpoint signaling. Here, we monitor sensing, signaling from, and repairing of a single site-specific ICL in cell-free extract derived from Xenopus eggs and in mammalian cells. Notably, we demonstrate that ICLs trigger a checkpoint response independently of origin-initiated DNA replication and uncoupling of DNA polymerase and DNA helicase. The Fanconi anemia pathway acts upstream of RPA-ATR-Chk1 to generate the ICL signal. The system also repairs ICLs in a reaction that involves extensive, error-free DNA synthesis. Repair occurs by both origin-dependent and origin-independent mechanisms. Our data suggest that cell sensitivity to crosslinking agents results from both checkpoint and DNA repair defects.
C57BL/6J mice carrying the Min allele of Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) develop numerous adenomas along the entire length of the intestine and consequently die at an early age. This short lifespan would prevent the accumulation of somatic genetic mutations or epigenetic alterations necessary for tumor progression. To overcome this limitation, we generated F(1) Apc(Min/+) hybrids by crossing C57BR/cdcJ and SWR/J females to C57BL/6J Apc(Min/+) males. These hybrids developed few intestinal tumors and often lived longer than 1 year. Many of the tumors (24-87%) were invasive adenocarcinomas, in which neoplastic tissue penetrated through the muscle wall into the mesentery. In a few cases (3%), lesions metastasized by extension to regional lymph nodes. The development of these familial cancers does not require chromosomal gains or losses, a high level of microsatellite instability, or the presence of Helicobacter. To test whether genetic instability might accelerate tumor progression, we generated Apc(Min/+) mice homozygous for the hypomorphic allele of the Nijmegen breakage syndrome gene (Nbs1(DeltaB)) and also treated Apc(Min/+) mice with a strong somatic mutagen. These imposed genetic instabilities did not reduce the time required for cancers to form nor increase the percentage of cancers nor drive progression to the point of distant metastasis. In summary, we have found that the Apc(Min/+) mouse model for familial intestinal cancer can develop frequent invasive cancers in the absence of overt genomic instability. Possible factors that promote invasion include age-dependent epigenetic changes, conservative somatic recombination, or direct effects of alleles in the F(1) hybrid genetic background.
Liver microsomes are widely used to study xenobiotic metabolism in vitro, and covalent binding to microsomal proteins serves as a surrogate marker for toxicity mediated by reactive metabolites. We have applied liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) to identify protein targets of the biotin-tagged model electrophiles 1-biotinamido-4-(4'-[maleimidoethylcyclohexane]-carboxamido)butane (BMCC) and N-iodoacetyl-N-biotinylhexylenediamine (IAB) in human liver microsomes. The biotin-tagged peptides resulting from in-gel tryptic digestion were enriched by biotin-avidin chromatography and LC-MS-MS was used to identify 376 microsomal cysteine thiol targets of BMCC and IAB in 263 proteins. Protein adduction was selective and reproducible, and only 90 specific cysteine sites in 70 proteins (approximately 25% of the total) were adducted by both electrophiles. Differences in adduction selectivity correlated with different biological effects of the compounds, as IAB- but not BMCC-induced ER stress in HEK293 cells. Targeted LC-MS-MS analysis of microsomal glutathione-S-transferase cysteine 50, a target of both IAB and BMCC, detected time-dependent adduction by the reactive acetaminophen metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine during microsomal incubations. The results indicate that electrophiles selectively adduct microsomal proteins, but display differing target selectivities that correlate with differences in toxicity. Analysis of selected microsomal protein adduction reactions thus could provide a more specific indication of potential toxicity than bulk covalent binding of radiolabeled compounds.
Alkylating agents, including environmental and endogenous carcinogens and DNA targeting antineoplastic agents, that adduct DNA via intermediates with significant cationic charge show a sequence selectively in their covalent bonding to nucleobases. The resulting patterns of alkylation eventually contribute to the agent-dependent distributions and types of mutations. The origin of the regioselective modification of DNA by electrophiles has been attributed to steric and/or electronic factors, but attempts to mechanistically model and predict alkylation patterns have had limited success. In this review, we present data consistent with the role of the intrinsic sequence-dependent electrostatic landscape (SDEL) in DNA that modulates the equilibrium binding of cations and the bonding of reactive charged alkylating agents to atoms that line the floor of the major groove of DNA.
The solution structure of the 1,4-bis(2'-deoxyadenosin-N(6)-yl)-2R,3R-butanediol cross-link arising from N(6)-dA alkylation of nearest-neighbor adenines by butadiene diepoxide (BDO(2)) was determined in the oligodeoxynucleotide 5'-d(CGGACXYGAAG)-3'.5'-d(CTTCTTGTCCG)-3'. This oligodeoxynucleotide contained codon 61 (underlined) of the human N-ras protooncogene. The cross-link was accommodated in the major groove of duplex DNA. At the 5'-side of the cross-link there was a break in Watson-Crick base pairing at base pair X(6).T(17), whereas at the 3'-side of the cross-link at base pair Y(7).T(16), base pairing was intact. Molecular dynamics calculations carried out using a simulated annealing protocol, and restrained by a combination of 338 interproton distance restraints obtained from (1)H NOESY data and 151 torsion angle restraints obtained from (1)H and (31)P COSY data, yielded ensembles of structures with good convergence. Helicoidal analysis indicated an increase in base pair opening at base pair X(6).T(17), accompanied by a shift in the phosphodiester backbone torsion angle beta P5'-O5'-C5'-C4' at nucleotide X(6). The rMD calculations predicted that the DNA helix was not significantly bent by the presence of the four-carbon cross-link. This was corroborated by gel mobility assays of multimers containing nonhydroxylated four-carbon N(6),N(6)-dA cross-links, which did not predict DNA bending. The rMD calculations suggested the presence of hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl group located on the beta-carbon of the four-carbon cross-link and T(17) O(4), which perhaps stabilized the base pair opening at X(6).T(17) and protected the T(17) imino proton from solvent exchange. The opening of base pair X(6).T(17) altered base stacking patterns at the cross-link site and induced slight unwinding of the DNA duplex. The structural data are interpreted in terms of biochemical data suggesting that this cross-link is bypassed by a variety of DNA polymerases, yet is significantly mutagenic [Kanuri, M., Nechev, L. V., Tamura, P. J., Harris, C. M., Harris, T. M., and Lloyd, R. S. (2002) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 15, 1572-1580].
DNA adducts are mutagenic and clastogenic. Because of their harmful nature, lesions are recognized by many proteins involved in DNA repair. However, mounting evidence suggests that lesions also are recognized by proteins with no obvious role in repair processes. One such protein is topoisomerase II, an essential enzyme that removes knots and tangles from the DNA. Because topoisomerase II generates a protein-linked double-stranded DNA break during its catalytic cycle, it has the potential to fragment the genome. Previous studies indicate that abasic sites and other lesions that distort the double helix stimulate topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage. Therefore, to further explore interactions between DNA lesions and the enzyme, the effects of exocyclic adducts on DNA cleavage mediated by human topoisomerase IIalpha were determined. When located within the four-base overhang of a topoisomerase II cleavage site (at the +2 or +3 position 3' relative to the scissile bond), 3,N(4)-ethenodeoxycytidine, 3,N(4)-etheno-2'-ribocytidine, 1,N(2)-ethenodeoxyguanosine, pyrimido[1,2-a]purin-10(3H)-one deoxyribose (M(1)dG), and 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine increased DNA scission approximately 5-17-fold. Enhanced cleavage did not result from an increased affinity of topoisomerase IIalpha for adducted DNA or a decreased rate of religation. Therefore, it is concluded that these exocyclic lesions act by accelerating the forward rate of enzyme-mediated DNA scission. Finally, treatment of cultured human cells with 2-chloroacetaldehyde, a reactive metabolite of vinyl chloride that generates etheno adducts, increased cellular levels of DNA cleavage by topoisomerase IIalpha. This finding suggests that type II topoisomerases interact with exocyclic DNA lesions in physiological systems.
The solution structure of the N1-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2(S)-yl)-2'-deoxyinosine adduct arising from the alkylation of adenine N1 by butadiene epoxide (BDO), followed by deamination to deoxyinosine, was determined, in the oligodeoxynucleotide d(CGGACXAGAAG).d(CTTCTCGTCCG). This oligodeoxynucleotide contained the BDO adduct at the second position of codon 61 of the human N-ras protooncogene, and was named the ras61 S-N1-BDO-(61,2) adduct. (1)H NMR revealed a weak C(5) H1' to X(6) H8 NOE, followed by an intense X(6) H8 to X(6) H1' NOE. Simultaneously, the X(6) H8 to X(6) H3' NOE was weak. The resonance arising from the T(17) imino proton was not observed. (1)H NOEs between the butadiene moiety and the DNA positioned the adduct in the major groove. Structural refinement based upon a total of 364 NOE-derived distance restraints yielded a structure in which the modified deoxyinosine was in the high syn conformation about the glycosyl bond, and T(17), the complementary nucleotide, was stacked into the helix, but not hydrogen bonded with the adducted inosine. The refined structure provided a plausible hypothesis as to why this N1 deoxyinosine adduct strongly coded for the incorporation of dCTP during trans lesion DNA replication, both in Escherichia coli [Rodriguez, D. A., Kowalczyk, A., Ward, J. B. J., Harris, C. M., Harris, T. M., and Lloyd, R. S. (2001) Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 38, 292-296], and in mammalian cells [Kanuri, M., Nechev, L. N., Tamura, P. J., Harris, C. M., Harris, T. M., and Lloyd, R. S. (2002) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 15, 1572-1580]. Rotation of the N1 deoxyinosine adduct into the high syn conformation may facilitate incorporation of dCTP via Hoogsteen-type templating with deoxyinosine, thus generating A-to-G mutations.
Human small ubiquitin-like modifier (sumo) proteins include sumo-1 and the less studied, nearly identical sumo-2 and sumo-3 proteins. Whereas the structurally related ubiquitin molecule targets proteins for degradation, sumo provides a distinct, yet poorly understood regulatory signal. Protein sumoylation is sensitive to diverse cellular stresses, yet the targets of sumoylation in stress are unknown. We studied protein sumoylation in HEK293 cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide, alkylating agents, and the lipid oxidation-derived electrophile 4-hydroxynonenal, which is an ubiquitous product of lipid oxidation associated with oxidative stress. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that in unstressed cells sumo-1 targeted nuclear proteins, whereas sumo-2/3 targeted proteins in both nuclei and cytoplasm. Western blot analyses revealed changes in sumo-1 and sumo-2/3 targeting patterns with stress. We used immunoaffinity chromatography to harvest sumo-associated proteins from HA-sumo-1- and HA-sumo-3-expressing HEK293 cells both before and after treatment with 4-hydroxynonenal. Multidimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses identified 54 HA-sumo-1-associated proteins and 38 HA-sumo-3-associated proteins. Major protein targets included RNA binding and processing proteins, transcription factors, metabolic enzymes, and cytoskeletal regulators. Treatment with 4-hydroxynonenal caused a near-complete redistribution of sumo-1 and sumo-3 to different protein targets, which included chaperones, antioxidant, and DNA damage signaling proteins. A 10-15% overlap of sumo-1 and sumo-3 targets before and after stress suggests that sumo proteins target distinct protein groups. The results suggest that reactive electrophiles not only directly modify proteins but also lead to indirect changes in endogenous protein modifications that regulate protein functions.
Several steps occur between the reaction of a chemical with DNA and a mutation, and each may influence the resulting mutation spectrum, i.e. nucleotides at which the mutations occur. The half-mustard S-(2-bro-moethyl)glutathione is the reactive conjugate implicated in ethylene dibromide-induced mutagenesis attributed to the glutathione-dependent pathway. A human p53-driven Ade reporter system in yeast was used to study the factors involved in producing mutations. The synthetic analog S-(2-chloroethyl)glutathione was used to produce DNA damage; the damage to the p53 exons was analyzed using a new fluorescence-based modification of ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction and an automated sequencer. The mutation spectrum was strongly dominated by the G to A transition mutations seen in other organisms with S-(2-chloroethyl)glutathione or ethylene dibromide. The mutation spectrum clearly differed from the spontaneous spectrum or that derived from N-ethyl,N-nitrosourea. Distinct differences were seen between patterns of modification of p53 DNA exposed to the mutagen in vitro versus in vivo. In the four p53 exons in which mutants were analyzed, the major sites of mutation matched the sites with long half-lives of repair much better than the sites of initial damage. However, not all slowly repaired sites yielded mutations in part because of the lack of effect of mutations on phenotype. We conclude that the rate of DNA repair at individual nucleotides is a major factor in influencing the mutation spectra in this system. The results are consistent with a role of N(7)-guanyl adducts in mutagenesis.