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The mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) orchestrates host antiviral innate immune response to RNA virus infection. However, how MAVS signaling is controlled to eradicate virus while preventing self-destructive inflammation remains obscure. Here, we show that protein geranylgeranylation, a posttranslational lipid modification of proteins, limits MAVS-mediated immune signaling by targeting Rho family small guanosine triphosphatase Rac1 into the mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes (MAMs) at the mitochondria-ER junction. Protein geranylgeranylation and subsequent palmitoylation promote Rac1 translocation into MAMs upon viral infection. MAM-localized Rac1 limits MAVS' interaction with E3 ligase Trim31 and hence inhibits MAVS ubiquitination, aggregation, and activation. Rac1 also facilitates the recruitment of caspase-8 and cFLIP to the MAVS signalosome and the subsequent cleavage of Ripk1 that terminates MAVS signaling. Consistently, mice with myeloid deficiency of protein geranylgeranylation showed improved survival upon influenza A virus infection. Our work revealed a critical role of protein geranylgeranylation in regulating antiviral innate immune response.
Albaflavenone, a tricyclic sesquiterpene antibiotic, is biosynthesized in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) by enzymes encoded in a two-gene operon. Initially, sesquiterpene cyclase catalyzes the cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate to the terpenoid epi-isozizaene, which is oxidized to the final albaflavenone by cytochrome P450 (CYP)170A1. Additionally, this CYP is a bifunctional enzyme, being able to also generate farnesene isomers from farnesyl diphosphate, owing to a terpene synthase active site moonlighting on the CYP molecule. To explore the functionality of this operon in other streptomycetes, we have examined culture extracts by GC/MS and established the presence of albaflavenone in five Streptomyces species. Bioinformatics examination of the predicted CYP170 primary amino acid sequences revealed substitutions in the CYP terpene synthase active site. To examine whether the terpene synthase site was catalytically active in another CYP170, we characterized the least related CYP170 orthologue from Streptomyces albus (CYP170B1). Following expression and purification, CYP170B1 showed a normal reduced CO difference spectrum at 450 nm, in contrast to the unusual 440-nm peak observed for S. coelicolor A3(2) CYP170A1. CYP170B1 can catalyze the conversion of epi-isozizaene to albaflavenone, but was unable to catalyze the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to farnesene. Molecular modeling with our crystal structure of CYP170A1 suggests that the absence of key amino acids for binding the essential terpene synthase cofactor Mg(2+) may be the explanation for the loss of CYP170B1 bifunctionality.
© 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.
Sesquiterpene skeletal complexity in nature originates from the enzyme-catalyzed ionization of (trans,trans)-farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) (1a) and subsequent cyclization along either 2,3-transoid or 2,3-cisoid farnesyl cation pathways. Tobacco 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (TEAS), a transoid synthase, produces cisoid products as a component of its minor product spectrum. To investigate the cryptic cisoid cyclization pathway in TEAS, we employed (cis,trans)-FPP (1b) as an alternative substrate. Strikingly, TEAS was catalytically robust in the enzymatic conversion of (cis,trans)-FPP (1b) to exclusively (>/=99.5%) cisoid products. Further, crystallographic characterization of wild-type TEAS and a catalytically promiscuous mutant (M4 TEAS) with 2-fluoro analogues of both all-trans FPP (1a) and (cis,trans)-FPP (1b) revealed binding modes consistent with preorganization of the farnesyl chain. These results provide a structural glimpse into both cisoid and transoid cyclization pathways efficiently templated by a single enzyme active site, consistent with the recently elucidated stereochemistry of the cisoid products. Further, computational studies using density functional theory calculations reveal concerted, highly asynchronous cyclization pathways leading to the major cisoid cyclization products. The implications of these discoveries for expanded sesquiterpene diversity in nature are discussed.
Albaflavenone synthase (CYP170A1) is a monooxygenase catalyzing the final two steps in the biosynthesis of this antibiotic in the soil bacterium, Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Interestingly, CYP170A1 shows no stereo selection forming equal amounts of two albaflavenol epimers, each of which is oxidized in turn to albaflavenone. To explore the structural basis of the reaction mechanism, we have studied the crystal structures of both ligand-free CYP170A1 (2.6 A) and complex of endogenous substrate (epi-isozizaene) with CYP170A1 (3.3 A). The structure of the complex suggests that the proximal epi-isozizaene molecules may bind to the heme iron in two orientations. In addition, much to our surprise, we have found that albaflavenone synthase also has a second, completely distinct catalytic activity corresponding to the synthesis of farnesene isomers from farnesyl diphosphate. Within the cytochrome P450 alpha-helical domain both the primary sequence and x-ray structure indicate the presence of a novel terpene synthase active site that is moonlighting on the P450 structure. This includes signature sequences for divalent cation binding and an alpha-helical barrel. This barrel is unusual because it consists of only four helices rather than six found in all other terpene synthases. Mutagenesis establishes that this barrel is essential for the terpene synthase activity of CYP170A1 but not for the monooxygenase activity. This is the first bifunctional P450 discovered to have another active site moonlighting on it and the first time a terpene synthase active site is found moonlighting on another protein.
BACKGROUND - Several genome-wide association studies have identified novel loci (KCTD10, MVK, and MMAB) that are associated with HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Of the environmental factors that determine HDL cholesterol, high-carbohydrate diets have been shown to be associated with low concentrations.
OBJECTIVE - The objective was to evaluate the associations of 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within the KCTD10, MVK, and MMAB loci with lipids and their potential interactions with dietary carbohydrates.
DESIGN - KCTD10, MVK, and MMAB SNPs were genotyped in 920 subjects (441 men and 479 women) who participated in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) Study. Biochemical measurements were made by using standard procedures. Dietary intakes were estimated by using a validated questionnaire.
RESULTS - For the SNPs KCTD10_i5642G-->C and MVK_S52NG-->A, homozygotes for the major alleles (G) had lower HDL-cholesterol concentrations than did carriers of the minor alleles (P = 0.005 and P = 0.019, respectively). For the SNP 12inter_108466061A-->G, homozygotes for the minor allele (G) had higher total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations than did AG subjects (P = 0.030 and P = 0.034, respectively). Conversely, homozygotes for the major allele (G) at MMAB_3U3527G-->C had higher LDL-cholesterol concentrations than did carriers of the minor allele (P = 0.034). Significant gene-diet interactions for HDL cholesterol were found (P < 0.001-0.038), in which GG subjects at SNPs KCTD10_i5642G-->C and MMAB_3U3527G-->C and C allele carriers at SNP KCTD10_V206VT-->C had lower concentrations only if they consumed diets with a high carbohydrate content (P < 0.001-0.011).
CONCLUSION - These findings suggest that the KCTD10 (V206VT-->C and i5642G-->C) and MMAB_3U3527G-->C variants may contribute to the variation in HDL-cholesterol concentrations, particularly in subjects with high carbohydrate intakes.
1,2-Dibromoethane and 1,3-butadiene are cancer suspects present in the environment and have been used widely in industry. The mutagenic properties of 1,2-dibromoethane and the 1,3-butadiene oxidation product diepoxybutane are thought to be related to the bis-electrophilic character of these chemicals. The discovery that overexpression of O(6)-alkylguanine alkyltransferase (AGT) enhances bis-electrophile-induced mutagenesis prompted a search for other proteins that may act by a similar mechanism. A human liver screen for nuclear proteins that cross-link with DNA in the presence of 1,2-dibromoethane identified histones H2b and H3 as candidate proteins. Treatment of isolated histones H2b and H3 with diepoxybutane resulted in DNA-protein cross-links and produced protein adducts, and DNA-histone H2b cross-links were identified (immunochemically) in Escherichia coli cells expressing histone H2b. However, heterologous expression of histone H2b in E. coli failed to enhance bis-electrophile-induced mutagenesis. These results are similar to those found with the cross-link candidate glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) [ Loecken , E. M. and Guengerich , F. P. ( 2008 ) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 21 , 453 - 458 ], but in contrast to GAPDH, histone H2b bound DNA with even higher affinity than AGT. The extent of DNA cross-linking of isolated histone H2b was similar to that of AGT, suggesting that differences in postcross-linking events explain the difference in mutagenesis.
Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency is a frequent cause of mitochondrial disease in infants. Mutations in the COX assembly gene SCO2 cause fatal infantile cardioencephalomyopathy. All patients reported to date with SCO2 deficiency share a common p.E140K mutation in at least 1 allele. In order to further the understanding of the genotype-phenotype spectrum associated with fatal infantile cardioencephalomyopathy, we describe a novel homozygous SCO2 mutation p.G193S in a patient with fatal infantile cardioencephalomyopathy born to consanguineous parents of Indian ancestry.
Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is an essential electron carrier in the respiratory chain whose deficiency has been implicated in a wide variety of human mitochondrial disease manifestations. Its multi-step biosynthesis involves production of polyisoprenoid diphosphate in a reaction that requires the enzymes be encoded by PDSS1 and PDSS2. Homozygous mutations in either of these genes, in humans, lead to severe neuromuscular disease, with nephrotic syndrome seen in PDSS2 deficiency. We now show that a presumed autoimmune kidney disease in mice with the missense Pdss2(kd/kd) genotype can be attributed to a mitochondrial CoQ biosynthetic defect. Levels of CoQ9 and CoQ10 in kidney homogenates from B6.Pdss2(kd/kd) mutants were significantly lower than those in B6 control mice. Disease manifestations originate specifically in glomerular podocytes, as renal disease is seen in Podocin/cre,Pdss2(loxP/loxP) knockout mice but not in conditional knockouts targeted to renal tubular epithelium, monocytes, or hepatocytes. Liver-conditional B6.Alb/cre,Pdss2(loxP/loxP) knockout mice have no overt disease despite demonstration that their livers have undetectable CoQ9 levels, impaired respiratory capacity, and significantly altered intermediary metabolism as evidenced by transcriptional profiling and amino acid quantitation. These data suggest that disease manifestations of CoQ deficiency relate to tissue-specific respiratory capacity thresholds, with glomerular podocytes displaying the greatest sensitivity to Pdss2 impairment.
Although unregulated activation of the Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/Erk signaling pathway is believed to be a central mechanism by which many cell types undergo oncogenic transformation, recent studies indicate that activation of Raf kinase by oncogenic Ras is not sufficient to cause tumorigenic transformation in intestinal epithelial cells. Thus, identification of signaling proteins and pathways that interact with Raf to transform intestinal epithelial cells may be critical for understanding aberrant growth control in the intestinal epithelium. Functional interactions between Raf and the small GTPase RhoA were studied in RIE-1 cells overexpressing both activated Raf(22W) and activated RhoA(63L). Double transfectants were morphologically transformed, formed colonies in soft agar, grew in nude mice, overexpressed cyclin D1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and were resistant to growth inhibition by transforming growth factor (TGF) beta. RIE-Raf and RIE-RhoA single transfectants showed none of these characteristics. Expression of a dominant-negative RhoA(N19) construct in RIE-Ras(12V) cells was associated with markedly reduced COX-2 mRNA, COX-2 protein, and prostaglandin E2 levels when compared with RIE-Ras(12V) cells transfected with vector alone. However, no change in transformed morphology, growth in soft agar, cyclin D1 expression, TGFalpha expression, or TGFbeta sensitivity was observed. In summary, coexpression of activated Raf and RhoA induces transformation and TGFbeta resistance in intestinal epithelial cells. Although blockade of RhoA signaling reverses certain well-described characteristics of RIE-Ras cells, it is insufficient to reverse the transformed phenotype and restore TGFbeta sensitivity. Blockade of additional Rho family members or alternate Ras effector pathways may be necessary to fully reverse the Ras phenotype.
Most cellular proto-oncogenes encode proteins that participate in signaling pathways by which cells receive and execute instructions that lead to mitogenesis, differentiation, lineage determination, cell migration, extracellular matrix production, and apoptosis, among others. These proto-oncogene protein products include transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases and receptor substrates, serine/threonine kinases, receptor adaptor molecules, low-molecular-weight GTPases, and transcription factors that, when overexpressed or mutationally activated, can lead to cell transformation and tumor progression. The large number of oncogenic protein tyrosine kinases plus the rare presence of phosphotyrosine in nontransformed cells argue persuasively that tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of signaling molecules downstream from receptor tyrosine kinases are critical events in growth control and transformation and are, therefore, rational targets for anticancer molecular therapies. We will review some of the more recent treatment strategies in non-small cell and small cell lung cancer targeted to dysregulated signaling pathways that are causally associated with tumor maintenance and progression.