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Introduction of Ag(i) ions into a sulfonic acid functionalized MOF ((Cr)-MIL-101-SO3H) significantly enhances its interactions with olefin double bonds, leading to its much higher selectivities for the separation of C2H4-C2H6 and C3H6-C3H8 at room temperature over the original (Cr)-MIL-101-SO3H and other adsorbents at room temperature.
Winning the relay: The first total synthesis of stemaphylline N-oxide has been completed utilizing a bistandem relay ring-closing-metathesis (RRCM) strategy, necessitated by the conformation of the requisite tetraene. This effort also gave unnatural 9a-epi-stemaphylline and 9a-epi-stemaphylline N-oxide.
Copyright © 2013 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Cyclooxygenase enzymes house spatially distinct cyclooxygenase- and peroxidase-active sites. The two-electron reduction of peroxides to their corresponding alcohols by the heme bound in the peroxidase-active site converts the heme to a ferryloxoprotoporyphrin cation radical, with a reductant providing the two electrons necessary to bring the heme back to its resting state. The ferryloxoprotoporyphrin cation radical can abstract a hydrogen atom from a tyrosine residue in the cyclooxygenase-active site, activating the oxygenase functionality. The tyrosyl radical subsequently abstracts a hydrogen atom from the cyclooxygenase substrate, arachidonic acid, leading to its oxygenation and the formation of a hydroperoxy endoperoxide intermediate, PGG(2). The peroxidase functionality reduces PGG(2) to the hydroxy endoperoxide, PGH(2), which serves as the precursor to downstream prostaglandins and thromboxane. The peroxidase activity of cycloxygenase enzymes can be assayed by quantifying the oxidation of a peroxidase reductant or the reduction of a hydroperoxide substrate. Here we describe a spectrophotometric assay used to measure the oxidation of a reductant, 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), as well as a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the measurement of the conversion of 5-phenyl-4-pentyl hydroperoxide (PPHP) to its corresponding alcohol. The first provides a continuous but indirect assay of peroxidase activity, whereas the second provides a discontinuous but direct assay.
Free radical oxidation of several 1,4-dienes was carried out in the presence of variable concentrations of alpha-tocopherol to investigate the effect of diene structure on product distribution. Oxidations carried out at low tocopherol concentration gave only C-1 and C-5 conjugated diene hydroperoxides, while higher concentrations of the antioxidant resulted in formation of substantial amounts of the nonconjugated C-3 diene hydroperoxide. Increasing size of the substituents at C-1 and C-5 of the diene favors kinetic products arising from oxygen addition at the nonconjugated position, C-3, of the pentadienyl radical intermediate. Substituents at C-1 or C-5 of the pentadienyl radical also have a significant effect on the regioselectivity of the conjugated diene hydroperoxides formed, larger substituents directing oxygen addition to the pentadienyl radical at the site of least steric hindrance. This trend is also observed in oxidations of omega-3 and omega-6 linolenate fatty acid esters. Groups at C-1 and C-5 of the diene can influence product distribution based upon (a) steric demand in the oxygen-radical reaction and (b) the influence of substituents on the rearrangement of the C-3 peroxyl radical to give conjugated diene products.
Transcription factor NF-kappaB plays a key regulatory role in the cellular response to pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). In the absence of TNF, NF-kappaB is sequestered in the cytoplasm by inhibitory IkappaB proteins. Phosphorylation of IkappaBby the beta-catalytic subunit of IKK, a multicomponent IkappaB kinase, targets the inhibitor for proteolytic destruction and facilitates nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. This pathway is initiated by TNF-dependent phosphorylation of T loop serines in IKKbeta, which greatly stimulates IkappaB kinase activity. Prior in vitro mixing experiments indicate that protein serine/threonine phosphatase 2A (PP2A) can dephosphorylate these T loop serines and inactivate IKK, suggesting a negative regulatory role for PP2A in IKK signaling. Here we provided several in vivo lines of evidence indicating that PP2A plays a positive rather than a negative role in the regulation of IKK. First, TNF-induced degradation of IkappaB is attenuated in cells treated with okadaic acid or fostriecin, two potent inhibitors of PP2A. Second, PP2A forms stable complexes with IKK in untransfected mammalian cells. This interaction is critically dependent on amino acid residues 121-179 of the IKKgamma regulatory subunit. Third, deletion of the PP2A-binding site in IKKgamma attenuates T loop phosphorylation and catalytic activation of IKKbeta in cells treated with TNF. Taken together, these data provide strong evidence that the formation of IKK.PP2A complexes is required for the proper induction of IkappaB kinase activity in vivo.
Autoxidations of cis,cis, cis,trans, and trans,trans nonconjugated octadecadienoates and pentadecadienes were carried out in the presence of alpha-tocopherol to investigate the effect of olefin geometry on this oxidation process and provide insight into the factors that influence the autoxidation of fatty acids. We have found that as the trans character of the diene increases, the amount of O(2) trapping at the central (bis-allylic) position of the pentadienyl radical also increases. In addition, the rate constant for beta-fragmentation (k(beta) approximately 10(6) s(-1)) of the bis-allylic peroxyl radical decreased on going from the cis,cis to the trans,trans diene. We have also found that for the cis,trans nonconjugated dienes, there is a preference for trapping of the pentadienyl radical by O(2) at the transoid end, generating the cis,trans conjugated hydroperoxide as the major product.
Much of the interest in the cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes has been because of oxidation of chemicals to reactive products. The epoxides (oxiranes) have been a major topic of interest with olefins and aryl compounds. Epoxides vary considerably in their reactivity, with t(1/2) varying from 1s to several hours. The stability and reactivity influences not only the overall damage to biological systems but also the site of injury. Transformations of some xenobiotic chemicals may involve products other than epoxides. Chemicals considered here include olefins, aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocycles, vinyl halides, ethyl carbamate, vinyl nitrosamines, and aflatoxin B(1). These compounds either are unsaturated or are transformed to unsaturated products. The epoxides and other products provide a view of the landscape of P450-generated reactive products and the myriad of chemistry involved in the metabolism of drugs and protoxicants. Understanding the chemical nature of reactive products is necessary to develop rational strategies for intervention.
4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) has been recognized as reactive product of lipid peroxidation and has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis in several common diseases as well as injuries caused by environmental toxicants. Although formed intracellularly in vivo, for practical reasons this molecule is applied extracellularly in order to analyze its biological effects. The focus of this study was to develop an approach that would enable intracellular HNE production in the absence of the many other products and processes that occur in cells experiencing generalized oxidative stress. To this end, we synthesized 1,1,4-tris(acetyloxy)-2(E)-nonene (HNE[Ac]3), a triester analogue of HNE that is itself unreactive but could be hydrolyzed intracellularly presumably by lipases and/or esterases into the highly reactive HNE. In vitro lipase rapidly converted HNE(Ac)(3) initially to 4-acetyloxy-2-nonenal (HNE[Ac]1) and then to HNE. Neuro 2A cell lysate also caused a rapid hydrolysis of HNE(Ac)3 into HNE(Ac)1 and HNE. Incubation of BSA with HNE(Ac)3 resulted in protein-adduct formation only in the presence of lipase. We demonstrated adduction of HNE to proteins in Neuro 2A cells exposed to HNE(Ac)3 by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry using antibodies specific for HNE-Michael adducts on proteins. We have previously shown that microtubule organization is very sensitive to HNE. Analysis of Neuro 2A cell microtubules showed that this cytoplasmic organelle is similarly sensitive to HNE and HNE(Ac)3.
The aldonitrile pentaacetate and other derivatives lack ions in the electron ionization (EI) spectra possessing an intact hexose structure and thus must be analyzed by chemical ionization GC/MS in order to study multiple isotopomers. We report methods for quantitation of hexose di-O-isopropylidene acetate (IPAc) or pentafluorobenzoyl (PFBz) esters. These were prepared in a two-step procedure using inexpensive reagents that do not adversely impact the isotopomer structure of the sugar. The acetate derivative possesses an abundant [M - CH3] ion in the EI spectrum which is suitable for quantitative analysis of isotopomers. The negative chemical ionization (NCI) spectrum of the corresponding pentafluorobenzoyl derivative has a dominant molecular anion. Moreover, the PFBz derivative is about 100-fold more sensitive than the acetate, which offers some advantages for analysis of minor hexoses found in plasma. Isotopic calibration curves of [U-13C]glucose are linear over the 0.1-60% tracer/tracee range tested. The useful range for isotopic tracer studies is 25-2500 pmol for EI analysis of the acetate derivative and 0.1-55 pmol for NCI analysis of PFBz derivative (sample amount injected). For most studies where sample size is not limited, EI-GC/MS analysis of the IPAc derivative is preferred. NCI-GC/MS analysis is reserved when sample size is limiting or when studies involve hexoses other than glucose that are normally present at low concentration.