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In the time period 1996-2004, we conducted a case-control study in Montevideo, Uruguay with the objective of exploring the role of foods and alcoholic beverages in the etiology of cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT). In brief, 563 male cases and 1099 male controls were frequency matched on age and residence using random sampling. All the participants were drawn from the 4 major public hospitals in Montevideo. We used exploratory factor analysis among controls. Through Scree plot test, the model retained 4 factors, which were labeled as prudent, starchy plants, Western, and drinker. These dietary patterns explained 34.8% of the total variance. Whereas the prudent pattern was inversely associated with UADT cancer [odds ratios (OR) for the upper tertile vs. the lowest one 0.52, 95% confidence intervals 0.32-0.76, P value for trend = 0.0005), the remaining patterns were significantly and positively associated with UADT cancers. We conclude that these patterns were similar among the oral and laryngeal cancers, both in the direction of the ORs and in the magnitude of the associations, suggesting that these cancer sites share the effect of dietary patterns in the etiology of cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract.
In the time period 1996-2004, 697 cases with lymphoid neoplasms and 3606 controls with nonneoplastic conditions were included in a case-control study conducted in the Cancer Institute of Uruguay. They were administered a routine questionnaire that included 8 sections and a food frequency questionnaire focused on intakes of total meat, red meat, salted meat, barbecued meat, processed meat, milk, total vegetables and total fruits, and alcoholic beverages. Lymphoid cancers were analyzed by multiple polytomous regression. Red meat, salted meat, and milk were positively associated with risk of lymphoid cancers [odds ratios (OR) for the highest tertile vs. the lowest one of red meat = 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37-2.08, OR for whole milk = 2.92, 95% CI 2.63-3.63). On the other hand, plant foods, particularly total fruits, and alcoholic beverages (mainly red wine) were protective. We could conclude that these foods could play a significant role in the etiology of lymphoid malignancies.
Alcohol consumption has been investigated as a possible risk factor for ovarian cancer in several epidemiological studies, with inconsistent findings. Recent studies have suggested that the association between alcohol consumption and ovarian cancer may vary according to histologic subtype of ovarian cancer and type of alcohol consumed (e.g., wine, beer, or liquor). We examined these associations in a population-based case-control study comprised of 762 incident cases of epithelial ovarian cancer and 6,271 population controls from Massachusetts and Wisconsin aged 40-79 years. Women reported their usual alcohol consumption as young adults (20-30 years of age) and in the recent past. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. There was no significant association of ovarian cancer with increasing alcohol consumption either during ages 20-30 years (p trend 0.42) or in the recent past (p trend 0.83). Regular drinking of beer (1 drink/day or more) during ages 20-30 (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.07-2.26), though not liquor (OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.86-2.11) or wine (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.49-2.00), was associated with a statistically significant increase in risk of invasive tumors, whereas no significant relationships were observed for recent drinking, regardless of alcohol type. The elevated risk for early adult regular drinking was confined to serous invasive tumors (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.01-2.30), though results for other subtypes were based on sparse data and results were imprecise. In this study, neither total alcohol consumption as a young adult nor recently was associated with an increase in the risk of ovarian cancer.