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BACKGROUND - Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have substantially improved clinical outcomes in multiple cancer types and are increasingly being used in early disease settings and in combinations of different immunotherapies. However, ICIs can also cause severe or fatal immune-related adverse-events (irAEs). We aimed to identify and characterise cardiovascular irAEs that are significantly associated with ICIs.
METHODS - In this observational, retrospective, pharmacovigilance study, we used VigiBase, WHO's global database of individual case safety reports, to compare cardiovascular adverse event reporting in patients who received ICIs (ICI subgroup) with this reporting in the full database. This study included all cardiovascular irAEs classified by group queries according to the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities, between inception on Nov 14, 1967, and Jan 2, 2018. We evaluated the association between ICIs and cardiovascular adverse events using the reporting odds ratio (ROR) and the information component (IC). IC is an indicator value for disproportionate Bayesian reporting that compares observed and expected values to find associations between drugs and adverse events. IC is the lower end of the IC 95% credibility interval, and an IC value of more than zero is deemed significant. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03387540.
FINDINGS - We identified 31 321 adverse events reported in patients who received ICIs and 16 343 451 adverse events reported in patients treated with any drugs (full database) in VigiBase. Compared with the full database, ICI treatment was associated with higher reporting of myocarditis (5515 reports for the full database vs 122 for ICIs, ROR 11·21 [95% CI 9·36-13·43]; IC 3·20), pericardial diseases (12 800 vs 95, 3·80 [3·08-4·62]; IC 1·63), and vasculitis (33 289 vs 82, 1·56 [1·25-1·94]; IC 0·03), including temporal arteritis (696 vs 18, 12·99 [8·12-20·77]; IC 2·59) and polymyalgia rheumatica (1709 vs 16, 5·13 [3·13-8·40]; IC 1·33). Pericardial diseases were reported more often in patients with lung cancer (49 [56%] of 87 patients), whereas myocarditis (42 [41%] of 103 patients) and vasculitis (42 [60%] of 70 patients) were more commonly reported in patients with melanoma (χ test for overall subgroup comparison, p<0·0001). Vision was impaired in five (28%) of 18 patients with temporal arteritis. Cardiovascular irAEs were severe in the majority of cases (>80%), with death occurring in 61 (50%) of 122 myocarditis cases, 20 (21%) of 95 pericardial disease cases, and five (6%) of 82 vasculitis cases (χ test for overall comparison between pericardial diseases, myocarditis, and vasculitis, p<0·0001).
INTERPRETATION - Treatment with ICIs can lead to severe and disabling inflammatory cardiovascular irAEs soon after commencement of therapy. In addition to life-threatening myocarditis, these toxicities include pericardial diseases and temporal arteritis with a risk of blindness. These events should be considered in patient care and in combination clinical trial designs (ie, combinations of different immunotherapies as well as immunotherapies and chemotherapy).
FUNDING - The Cancer Institut Thématique Multi-Organisme of the French National Alliance for Life and Health Sciences (AVIESAN) Plan Cancer 2014-2019; US National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health; the James C. Bradford Jr. Melanoma Fund; and the Melanoma Research Foundation.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE - A prolonged QTc (LQT) is a surrogate for the risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). QTc interval duration is influenced by sex hormones: oestradiol prolongs and testosterone shortens QTc. Drugs used in the treatment of breast cancer have divergent effects on hormonal status.
METHODS - We performed a disproportionality analysis using the European database of suspected adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports to evaluate the reporting OR (ROR χ) of LQT, TdP and ventricular arrhythmias associated with selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs: tamoxifen and toremifene) as opposed to aromatase inhibitors (AIs: anastrozole, exemestane and letrozole). When the proportion of an ADR is greater in patients exposed to a drug (SERMs) compared with patients exposed to control drug (AIs), this suggests an association between the specific drug and the reaction and is a potential signal for safety. Clinical and demographic characterisation of patients with SERMs-induced LQT and ventricular arrhythmias was performed.
RESULTS - SERMs were associated with higher proportion of LQT reports versus AIs (26/8318 vs 11/14851, ROR: 4.2 (2.11-8.55), p<0.001). SERMs were also associated with higher proportion of TdP and ventricular arrhythmia reports versus AIs (6/8318 vs 2/14851, ROR: 5.4 (1.29-26.15), p:0.02; 16/8318 vs 12/14851, ROR: 2.38 (1.15-4.94), p:0.02, respectively). Mortality was 38% in patients presenting ventricular arrhythmias associated with SERMs.
CONCLUSIONS - SERMs are associated with more reports of drug-induced LQT, TdP and ventricular arrhythmias compared with AIs. This finding is consistent with oestradiol-like properties of SERMs on the heart as opposed to effects of oestrogen deprivation and testosterone increase induced by AIs.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER - NCT03259711.
© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
The Brighton Collaboration is a global research network focused on vaccine safety. The Collaboration has created case definitions to determine diagnostic certainty for several adverse events. Currently nested within multi-page publications, these definitions can be cumbersome for use. We report the results of a randomized trial in which the case definition for anaphylaxis was converted into a user-friendly algorithm and compared the algorithm with the standard case definition. The primary outcomes were efficiency and accuracy. Forty medical students determined the Brighton Level of diagnostic certainty of a sample case of anaphylaxis using either the algorithm or the original case definition. Most participants in both groups selected the correct Brighton Level. Participants using the algorithm required significantly less time to review the case and determine the level of diagnostic certainty [mean difference=107 s (95% CI: 13-200; p=0.026)], supporting that the algorithm was more efficient without impacting accuracy.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE - This work identified challenges associated with extraction and representation of medication-related information from publicly available electronic sources.
METHODS - We gained direct observational experience through creating and evaluating the Drug Evidence Base (DEB), a repository of drug indications and adverse effects (ADEs), and supplemented this through literature review. We extracted DEB content from the National Drug File Reference Terminology, from aggregated MEDLINE co-occurrence data, and from the National Library of Medicine's DailyMed. To understand better the similarities, differences and problems with the content of DEB and the SIDER Side Effect Resource, and Vanderbilt's MEDI Indication Resource, we carried out statistical evaluations and human expert reviews.
RESULTS - While DEB, SIDER, and MEDI often agreed on medication indications and side effects, cross-system shortcomings limit their current utility. The drug information resources we evaluated frequently employed multiple, disparate vaguely related UMLS concepts to represent a single specific clinical drug indication or adverse effect. Thus, evaluations comparing drug-indication and drug-ADE coverage for such resources will encounter substantial numbers of false negative and false positive matches. Furthermore, our review found that many indication and ADE relationships are too complex - logically and temporally - to represent within existing systems.
CONCLUSION - To enhance applicability and utility, future drug information systems deriving indications and ADEs from public resources must represent clinical concepts uniformly and as precisely as possible. Future systems must also better represent the inherent complexity of indications and ADEs.
BACKGROUND - Monovalent 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccines were licensed and administered in the United States during the H1N1 influenza pandemic between 2009 and 2013.
METHODS - Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System received reports of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) after H1N1 vaccination. Selected reports were referred to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment network for additional review. We assessed causality using modified World Health Organization criteria.
RESULTS - There were 3,928 reports of AEFI in children younger than age 18 years after 2009 H1N1 vaccination received by January 31, 2010. Of these, 214 (5.4%) were classified as serious nonfatal and 109 were referred to Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment for further evaluation. Ninety-nine (91%) had sufficient initial information to begin investigation and are described here. The mean age was 8 years (range, 6 months-17 years) and 38% were female. Median number of days between vaccination and symptom onset was 2 (range, -11 days to +41 days). Receipt of inactivated, live attenuated, or unknown type of 2009 H1N1 vaccines was reported by 68, 26 and 5 cases, respectively. Serious AEFI were categorized as neurologic events in 47 cases, as hypersensitivity in 15 cases and as respiratory events in 10 cases. At the time of evaluation, recovery was described as complete (61), partial (16), no improvement (1), or unknown (21). Causality assessment yielded the following likelihood of association with 2009 H1N1 vaccination: 8 definitely; 8 probably; 21 possibly; 43 unlikely; 17 unrelated; and 2 unclassifiable.
CONCLUSIONS - Most AEFI in children evaluated were not causally related to vaccine and resolved without sequelae. Detailed clinical assessment of individual serious AEFI can provide reassurance of vaccine safety.
In immunization safety research, individuals are considered at risk for the development of certain adverse events following immunization (AEFI) within a specific period of time referred to as the risk interval. These intervals should ideally be determined based on biologic plausibility considering features of the AEFI, presumed or known pathologic mechanism, and the vaccine. Misspecification of the length and timing of these intervals may result in introducing bias in epidemiologic and clinical studies of immunization safety. To date, little work has been done to formally assess and determine biologically plausible and evidence-based risk intervals in immunization safety research. In this report, we present a systematic process to define biologically plausible and evidence-based risk interval estimates for two specific AEFIs, febrile seizures and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. In addition, we review methodologic issues related to the determination of risk intervals for consideration in future studies of immunization safety.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.