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Tumor-associated macrophage and T-cell subsets are implicated in the pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Macrophages provide essential mechanisms of tumor immune evasion through checkpoint ligand expression and secretion of suppressive cytokines. However, normal and tumor-associated macrophage phenotypes are less well characterized than those of tumor-infiltrating T-cell subsets, and it would be especially valuable to know whether the polarization state of macrophages differs across lymphoma tumor microenvironments. Here, an established mass cytometry panel designed to characterize myeloid-derived suppressor cells and known macrophage maturation and polarization states was applied to characterize B-lymphoma tumors and non-malignant human tissue. High-dimensional single-cell analyses were performed using dimensionality reduction and clustering tools. Phenotypically distinct intra-tumor macrophage subsets were identified based on abnormal marker expression profiles that were associated with lymphoma tumor types. While it had been proposed that measurement of CD163 and CD68 might be sufficient to reveal macrophage subsets in tumors, results here indicated that S100A9, CCR2, CD36, Slan, and CD32 should also be measured to effectively characterize lymphoma-specific tumor macrophages. Additionally, the presence of phenotypically distinct, abnormal macrophage populations was closely linked to the phenotype of intra-tumor T-cell populations, including PD-1 expressing T cells. These results further support the close links between macrophage polarization and T-cell functional state, as well as the rationale for targeting tumor-associated macrophages in cancer immunotherapies.
The missing heritability of breast cancer could be partially attributed to rare variants (MAF < 0.5%). To identify breast cancer-associated rare coding variants, we conducted whole-exome sequencing (~50×) in genomic DNA samples obtained from 831 breast cancer cases and 839 controls of Chinese females. Using burden tests for each gene that included rare missense or predicted deleterious variants, we identified 29 genes showing promising associations with breast cancer risk. We replicated the association for two genes, OGDHL and BRCA2, at a Bonferroni-corrected p < 0.05, by genotyping an independent set of samples from 1,628 breast cancer cases and 1,943 controls. The association for OGDHL was primarily driven by three predicted deleterious variants (p.Val827Met, p.Pro839Leu, p.Phe836Ser; p < 0.01 for all). For BRCA2, we characterized a total of 27 disruptive variants, including 18 nonsense, six frameshift and three splicing variants, whereas they were only detected in cases, but none of the controls. All of these variants were either very rare (AF < 0.1%) or not detected in >4,500 East Asian women from the genome Aggregation database (gnomAD), providing additional support to our findings. Our study revealed a potential novel gene and multiple disruptive variants of BRCA2 for breast cancer risk, which may identify high-risk women in Chinese populations.
© 2019 UICC.
BACKGROUND - Advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) of antibody repertoires have led to an explosion in B cell receptor sequence data from donors with many different disease states. These data have the potential to detect patterns of immune response across populations. However, to this point it has been difficult to interpret such patterns of immune response between disease states in the absence of functional data. There is a need for a robust method that can be used to distinguish general patterns of immune responses at the antibody repertoire level.
RESULTS - We developed a method for reducing the complexity of antibody repertoire datasets using principal component analysis (PCA) and refer to our method as "repertoire fingerprinting." We reduce the high dimensional space of an antibody repertoire to just two principal components that explain the majority of variation in those repertoires. We show that repertoires from individuals with a common experience or disease state can be clustered by their repertoire fingerprints to identify common antibody responses.
CONCLUSIONS - Our repertoire fingerprinting method for distinguishing immune repertoires has implications for characterizing an individual disease state. Methods to distinguish disease states based on pattern recognition in the adaptive immune response could be used to develop biomarkers with diagnostic or prognostic utility in patient care. Extending our analysis to larger cohorts of patients in the future should permit us to define more precisely those characteristics of the immune response that result from natural infection or autoimmunity.
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is triggered by retinal cell damage stimulated by the diabetic milieu, including increased levels of intraocular free fatty acids. Free fatty acids may serve as an initiator of inflammatory cytokine release from Müller cells, and the resulting cytokines are potent stimulators of retinal endothelial pathology, such as leukostasis, vascular permeability, and basement membrane thickening. Our previous studies have elucidated a role for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) in promoting several steps in the pathologic cascade in DR, including angiogenesis and expression of inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, PPARβ/δ is a known target of lipid signaling, suggesting a potential role for this transcription factor in fatty acid-induced retinal inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that PPARβ/δ stimulates both the induction of inflammatory mediators by Müller cells as well the paracrine induction of leukostasis in endothelial cells (EC) by Müller cell inflammatory products. To test this, we used the PPARβ/δ inhibitor, GSK0660, in primary human Müller cells (HMC), human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMEC) and mouse retina. We found that palmitic acid (PA) activation of PPARβ/δ in HMC leads to the production of pro-angiogenic and/or inflammatory cytokines that may constitute DR-relevant upstream paracrine inflammatory signals to EC and other retinal cells. Downstream, EC transduce these signals and increase their synthesis and release of chemokines such as CCL8 and CXCL10 that regulate leukostasis and other cellular events related to vascular inflammation in DR. Our results indicate that PPARβ/δ inhibition mitigates these upstream (MC) as well as downstream (EC) inflammatory signaling events elicited by metabolic stimuli and inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, our data suggest that PPARβ/δ inhibition is a potential therapeutic strategy against early DR pathology.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) has been useful in delineating cardiac myofilament biology, and innovations in fluorophore chemistry have expanded the array of microscopic assays used. However, one assumption in FRAP is the irreversible photobleaching of fluorescent proteins after laser excitation. Here we demonstrate reversible photobleaching regarding the photoconvertible fluorescent protein mEos3.2. We used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to knock-in mEos3.2 into the COOH terminus of titin to visualize sarcomeric titin incorporation and turnover. Upon cardiac induction, the titin-mEos3.2 fusion protein is expressed and integrated in the sarcomeres of hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs). STORM imaging shows M-band clustered regions of bound titin-mEos3.2 with few soluble titin-mEos3.2 molecules. FRAP revealed a baseline titin-mEos3.2 fluorescence recovery of 68% and half-life of ~1.2 h, suggesting a rapid exchange of sarcomeric titin with soluble titin. However, paraformaldehyde-fixed and permeabilized titin-mEos3.2 hiPSC-CMs surprisingly revealed a 55% fluorescence recovery. Whole cell FRAP analysis in paraformaldehyde-fixed, cycloheximide-treated, and untreated titin-mEos3.2 hiPSC-CMs displayed no significant differences in fluorescence recovery. FRAP in fixed HEK 293T expressing cytosolic mEos3.2 demonstrates a 58% fluorescence recovery. These data suggest that titin-mEos3.2 is subject to reversible photobleaching following FRAP. Using a mouse titin-eGFP model, we demonstrate that no reversible photobleaching occurs. Our results reveal that reversible photobleaching accounts for the majority of titin recovery in the titin-mEos3.2 hiPSC-CM model and should warrant as a caution in the extrapolation of reliable FRAP data from specific fluorescent proteins in long-term cell imaging.
OBJECTIVE - Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by pain and fatigue, particularly during physical activity. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) activates endogenous pain inhibitory mechanisms. This study was undertaken to investigate if using TENS during activity would improve movement-evoked pain and other patient-reported outcomes in women with FM.
METHODS - Participants were randomly assigned to receive active TENS (n = 103), placebo TENS (n = 99), or no TENS (n = 99) and instructed to use it at home during activity 2 hours each day for 4 weeks. TENS was applied to the lumbar and cervicothoracic regions using a modulated frequency (2-125 Hz) at the highest tolerable intensity. Participants rated movement-evoked pain (primary outcome measure) and fatigue on an 11-point scale before and during application of TENS. The primary outcome measure and secondary patient-reported outcomes were assessed at baseline (time of randomization) and at 4 weeks.
RESULTS - After 4 weeks, a greater reduction in movement-evoked pain was reported in the active TENS group versus the placebo TENS group (group mean difference -1.0 [95% confidence interval -1.8, -0.2]; P = 0.008) and versus the no TENS group (group mean difference -1.8 [95% confidence interval -2.6, -1.0]; P < 0.0001). A reduction in movement-evoked fatigue was also reported in the active TENS group versus the placebo TENS group (group mean difference -1.4 [95% confidence interval -2.4, -0.4]; P = 0.001) and versus the no TENS group (group mean difference -1.9 [95% confidence interval -2.9, -0.9]; P = <0.0001). A greater percentage of the patients in the active TENS group reported improvement on the global impression of change compared to the placebo TENS group (70% versus 31%; P < 0.0001) and the no TENS group (9%; P < 0.0001). There were no TENS-related serious adverse events, and <5% of participants experienced minor adverse events from TENS.
CONCLUSION - Among women who had FM and were on a stable medication regimen, 4 weeks of active TENS use compared to placebo TENS or no TENS resulted in a significant improvement in movement-evoked pain and other clinical outcomes. Further research is needed to examine effectiveness in a real-world setting to establish the clinical importance of these findings.
© 2019 The Authors. Arthritis & Rheumatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Rheumatology.
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) is known to improve whole-body glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), although the mechanisms are not entirely clear and are likely multifactorial. The aim of this study was to assess fasting hepatic glucose metabolism and other markers of metabolic activity before and after RYGB in patients with and without T2D. Methods: Metabolic characteristics of patients who are obese with T2D were compared with those without the disease (non-T2D) before and 1 and 6 mo after RYGB. Fasting plasma insulin and the insulin:glucagon ratio were markedly reduced as early as 1 mo after RYGB in both patients with T2D and without T2D. Despite this reduction, endogenous glucose production and fasting plasma glucose levels were lower in both groups after RYGB, with the reductions being much larger in T2D. Plasma kisspeptin, an inhibitor of insulin secretion, was reduced only in T2D after surgery. Improved hepatic glucose metabolism and lower plasma kisspeptin in T2D after RYGB may link improved hepatic function with enhanced insulin responsiveness after surgery. Our manuscript is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to present data showing that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) lowers fasting kisspeptin levels in patients who are obese with type 2 diabetes. This lowering of kisspeptin is important because it could link improvements in liver glucose metabolism after RYGB with increased insulin responsiveness also seen after surgery.