The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
OBJECTIVE - Describe intervention processes associated with an Internet self-management problem solving program for adolescents with type 1 diabetes, and relate participant characteristics to program use.
METHODS - Forty-one adolescents with type 1 diabetes, aged 13-17, participated in an Internet intervention.
RESULTS - Participants reported psychosocial self-management barriers related to social issues (45%), time pressures (22%), and emotions (25%). Most adolescents (76%) completed the two guided problem solving cycles, and most (97%) problems were appropriate and specific to diabetes. Of the 61 diabetes problems reported, 92% were mostly or completely solved. Baseline hemoglobin A1c, diabetes duration, and age were not related to online activities, however females posted more often to the forum (U=130.0, Z=2.13, p=.033). The majority of parents (87%) interacted with their child about the website.
CONCLUSION - Adolescents experience psychosocial barriers to self-management that can be addressed by teaching problem solving via the Internet.
PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS - An Internet self-management problem solving program with minimal external support provides a viable option for diabetes clinics to improve pediatric diabetes outcomes.
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE To report results from YourWay, an Internet-based self-management intervention for adolescents with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 72 adolescents with type 1 diabetes, ages 13-17 years, were randomized to a usual-care-plus-Internet support or a usual-care group. The intervention was designed to enhance problem-solving barriers to self-management. A1C was obtained from medical records, and problem-solving and self-management were obtained via adolescent report. RESULTS Group differences were not statistically significant using intent-to-treat analyses. Using as-treated analyses, adolescents in the treatment condition showed statistically significant improvement in self-management (d = 0.64; P = 0.02) and important improvements in problem-solving (d = 0.30; P = 0.23) and A1C (d = -0.28; P = 0.27). Mean A1C for the intervention group remained constant (-0.01%), while the control group increased (0.33%). CONCLUSIONS This brief trial suggests that self-management support delivered through a secure website may improve self-management and offset typical decreases in adolescent glycemic control.
BACKGROUND - Research about the effectiveness of school-based psychosocial prevention programs for reducing aggressive and disruptive behavior was synthesized using meta-analysis. This work updated previous work by the authors and further investigated which program and student characteristics were associated with the most positive outcomes.
METHODS - Two hundred forty-nine experimental and quasi-experimental studies of school-based programs with outcomes representing aggressive and/or disruptive behavior were obtained. Effect sizes and study characteristics were coded from these studies and analyzed.
RESULTS - Positive overall intervention effects were found on aggressive and disruptive behavior and other relevant outcomes. The most common and most effective approaches were universal programs and targeted programs for selected/indicated children. The mean effect sizes for these types of programs represent a decrease in aggressive/disruptive behavior that is likely to be of practical significance to schools. Multicomponent comprehensive programs did not show significant effects and those for special schools or classrooms were marginal. Different treatment modalities (e.g., behavioral, cognitive, social skills) produced largely similar effects. Effects were larger for better-implemented programs and those involving students at higher risk for aggressive behavior.
CONCLUSIONS - Schools seeking prevention programs may choose from a range of effective programs with some confidence that whatever they pick will be effective. Without the researcher involvement that characterizes the great majority of programs in this meta-analysis, schools might be well-advised to give priority to those that will be easiest to implement well in their settings.
PURPOSE - To investigate the association of psychological distress and health risk behaviors among HIV infected adolescents. It was hypothesized that higher levels of distress would be associated with increased sexual risk behaviors, and increased use of alcohol and drugs.
METHODS - HIV infected adolescents (N = 323) were recruited into an observational study in 15 clinical sites; for the 323 subjects, a total of 1212 visits were used in a repeated measures analysis. Data on depression (using the CES-D), anxiety (manifest anxiety scale), sexual behaviors and alcohol and marijuana use were obtained through computer-assisted self-administered interview.
RESULTS - Approximately 65% of the sample was sexually active across all six study visits, with approximately 43% consistently reporting having unprotected sex at last intercourse. Higher levels of depression were associated with frequent alcohol use and with unprotected sex at last intercourse, with depressed adolescents significantly more likely to have had unprotected sex than those who were not depressed. Health anxiety was associated with frequent marijuana use and with recent sexual activity, and physiological anxiety was also associated with recent sexual activity.
CONCLUSIONS - Despite the fact that these HIV infected adolescents are all engaged in primary care, overall the sample is maintaining its high-risk sexual behavior. In addition, these adolescents may be self-medicating to deal with health-related anxiety. Health interventions for HIV infected adolescents should examine whether psychological distress is contributing to maintenance health risk behaviors.
PURPOSE - To describe the Reaching for Excellence in Adolescent Care and Health (REACH) Project of the Adolescent Medicine Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) Research Network, a unique collaborative effort to conceive and implement a research design intended to examine HIV pathogenesis, pubertal hormonal variation, and the effects of sexually transmitted disease comorbidity in HIV-infected youth to improve their health care.
METHODS - This multidisciplinary team has drawn on basic science and clinical experience to produce a study design with relevant and feasible study aims and testable hypotheses. Particular attention has been paid to centralized training and quality control practices. Standardized measurements include direct and computer interviews, physical examination, laboratory analysis, and medical chart abstraction. The protocol has been approved by local institutional review boards.
RESULTS - A highly standardized and quality control monitored protocol has been implemented at 16 sites throughout the United States collecting historical, observational, and laboratory data in a group of HIV-infected adolescents and HIV-negative controls. Preliminary data collected on subjects are consistent with published reports of the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the HIV epidemic in sexually active youth, thus supporting the integrity of the protocol development process. The study population is, for the most part, in older adolescence, predominantly minority and female, and with publicly financed or no health insurance.
CONCLUSIONS - The REACH Project is positioned to address questions about the clinical course, immunologic profile, and viral dynamics in HIV-positive youth, and thus is able to inform drug development and management strategies for this understudied population.