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Shared Genetic Control of Brain Activity During Sleep and Insulin Secretion: A Laboratory-Based Family Study.
Morselli LL, Gamazon ER, Tasali E, Cox NJ, Van Cauter E, Davis LK
(2018) Diabetes 67: 155-164
MeSH Terms: Adiposity, Adult, Blood Glucose, Brain, Electroencephalography, Female, Glucose Tolerance Test, Humans, Insulin, Insulin Secretion, Male, Middle Aged, Pedigree, Sleep
Show Abstract · Added November 29, 2017
Over the past 20 years, a large body of experimental and epidemiologic evidence has linked sleep duration and quality to glucose homeostasis, although the mechanistic pathways remain unclear. The aim of the current study was to determine whether genetic variation influencing both sleep and glucose regulation could underlie their functional relationship. We hypothesized that the genetic regulation of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep, a highly heritable trait with fingerprint reproducibility, is correlated with the genetic control of metabolic traits including insulin sensitivity and β-cell function. We tested our hypotheses through univariate and bivariate heritability analyses in a three-generation pedigree with in-depth phenotyping of both sleep EEG and metabolic traits in 48 family members. Our analyses accounted for age, sex, adiposity, and the use of psychoactive medications. In univariate analyses, we found significant heritability for measures of fasting insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, for time spent in slow-wave sleep, and for EEG spectral power in the delta, theta, and sigma ranges. Bivariate heritability analyses provided the first evidence for a shared genetic control of brain activity during deep sleep and fasting insulin secretion rate.
© 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.
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14 MeSH Terms
Metabolic Effects of Diet and Exercise in Patients with Moderate to Severe CKD: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
Ikizler TA, Robinson-Cohen C, Ellis C, Headley SAE, Tuttle K, Wood RJ, Evans EE, Milch CM, Moody KA, Germain M, Limkunakul C, Bian A, Stewart TG, Himmelfarb J
(2018) J Am Soc Nephrol 29: 250-259
MeSH Terms: Adiposity, Aged, Albuminuria, Body Weight, Caloric Restriction, Creatinine, Exercise, F2-Isoprostanes, Female, Glomerular Filtration Rate, Humans, Interleukin-6, Male, Middle Aged, Oxidative Stress, Oxygen Consumption, Pilot Projects, Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
Show Abstract · Added October 24, 2017
CKD is steadily increasing along with obesity worldwide. Furthermore, obesity is a proinflammatory risk factor for progression of CKD and cardiovascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that implementation of caloric restriction and aerobic exercise is feasible and can improve the proinflammatory metabolic milieu in patients with moderate to severe CKD through a pilot, randomized, 2×2 factorial design trial. Of 122 participants consented, 111 were randomized to receive caloric restriction and aerobic exercise, caloric restriction alone, aerobic exercise alone, or usual care. Of those randomized, 42% were women, 25% were diabetic, and 91% were hypertensive; 104 started intervention, and 92 completed the 4-month study. Primary outcomes were a change from baseline in absolute fat mass, body weight, plasma F-isoprostane concentrations, and peak oxygen uptake (VO). Compared with usual care, the combined intervention led to statistically significant decreases in body weight and body fat percentage. Caloric restriction alone also led to significant decreases in these measures, but aerobic exercise alone did not. The combined intervention and each independent intervention also led to significant decreases in F-isoprostane and IL-6 concentrations. No intervention produced significant changes in VO, kidney function, or urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. In conclusion, 4-month dietary calorie restriction and aerobic exercise had significant, albeit clinically modest, benefits on body weight, fat mass, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammatory response in patients with moderate to severe CKD. These results suggest healthy lifestyle interventions as a nonpharmacologic strategy to improve markers of metabolic health in these patients.
Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.
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18 MeSH Terms
Intermuscular Adipose Tissue and Subclinical Coronary Artery Calcification in Midlife: The CARDIA Study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults).
Terry JG, Shay CM, Schreiner PJ, Jacobs DR, Sanchez OA, Reis JP, Goff DC, Gidding SS, Steffen LM, Carr JJ
(2017) Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 37: 2370-2378
MeSH Terms: Abdominal Muscles, Adiposity, Adolescent, Adult, Age Factors, Asymptomatic Diseases, Computed Tomography Angiography, Coronary Angiography, Coronary Artery Disease, Cross-Sectional Studies, Female, Humans, Intra-Abdominal Fat, Logistic Models, Male, Middle Aged, Multidetector Computed Tomography, Multivariate Analysis, Odds Ratio, Pericardium, Prevalence, Risk Factors, United States, Vascular Calcification, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added December 13, 2017
OBJECTIVE - Excess deposition of fat within and around vital organs and nonadipose tissues is hypothesized to contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We evaluated the association of abdominal intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) volume with coronary artery calcification in the CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) participants.
APPROACH AND RESULTS - We measured IMAT in the abdominal muscles, visceral adipose tissue and pericardial adipose tissue, and coronary artery calcification using computed tomography in 3051 CARDIA participants (56% women) at the CARDIA year 25 examination (2010-2011). Mean IMAT volume and mean IMAT/total muscle volume (IMAT normalized for muscle size) were calculated in a 10-mm block of slices centered at L3-L4. Multivariable analyses included potential confounders and traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. Compared with the lowest quartile, the upper quartile of abdominal IMAT volume was associated with higher coronary artery calcification prevalence (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.6 [1.2-2.1]) after adjusting for cardiovascular disease risk factors. Results were similar for highest versus lowest quartile of IMAT normalized to total muscle volume (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.5 [1.1-2.0]). Significant associations of higher IMAT and normalized IMAT with coronary artery calcification prevalence persisted when body mass index, visceral adipose tissue, or pericardial adipose tissue were added to the models.
CONCLUSIONS - In a large, community-based, cross-sectional study, we found that higher abdominal skeletal muscle adipose tissue volume was associated with subclinical atherosclerosis independent of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and other adipose depots.
© 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
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25 MeSH Terms
Rapid decline in lung function is temporally associated with greater metabolically active adiposity in a longitudinal study of healthy adults.
Moualla M, Qualls C, Arynchyn A, Thyagarajan B, Kalhan R, Smith LJ, Carr JJ, Jacobs DR, Sood A
(2017) Thorax 72: 1113-1120
MeSH Terms: Adiposity, Adult, Anthropometry, Body Mass Index, Disease Progression, Female, Forced Expiratory Volume, Humans, Intra-Abdominal Fat, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Metabolic Syndrome, Middle Aged, Social Class, Vital Capacity
Show Abstract · Added September 11, 2017
RATIONALE - Adiposity is associated with low lung function, but the longitudinal relationship between lung function and adiposity is inadequately studied.
OBJECTIVE - To examine the bidirectional longitudinal associations between rapid decline in lung function and adiposity phenotypes in healthy adults.
METHODS - This secondary analysis used a 25-year longitudinal dataset from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study that enrolled 5115 participants.
MEASUREMENTS - In the first analysis, metabolic syndrome at or before CARDIA year (Y) 10 (Y10) was the predictor, and subsequent rapid decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) or forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV) between Y10 and Y20 was the outcome. In the second analysis, rapid decline was the predictor, and incident metabolic syndrome at Y20 and/or Y25 was the outcome. In the third analysis, rapid decline was the predictor, and subsequent CT-assessed regional fat depots at Y25 were the outcome.
RESULTS - Metabolic syndrome at or before Y10 is temporally associated with rapid decline in FVC between Y10 and Y20 (adjusted p=0.04), but this association was explained by body mass index (BMI) at Y10. Rapid decline in FVC or FEV is temporally associated with greater incident metabolic syndrome at Y20 and/or Y25 (adjusted OR 2.10 (1.69, 2.61); p<0.001, and 1.56 (1.26, 1.94); p<0.001, respectively) and greater CT-assessed intrathoracic visceral adiposity at Y25 (adjusted standardised β 0.09; p<0.001 for both analyses). These associations were not explained by BMI levels prior to the outcome measurement.
CONCLUSIONS - Healthy adults with rapid decline in lung function are at risk for developing metabolic syndrome and for disproportionate accumulation of intrathoracic visceral fat. Metabolic abnormalities may be an early extrapulmonary manifestation of lung impairment that may be preventable by improving lung health.
© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
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15 MeSH Terms
Association of ectopic fat with abdominal aorto-illiac and coronary artery calcification in african ancestry men.
Kuipers AL, Zmuda JM, Carr JJ, Terry JG, Nair S, Cvejkus R, Bunker CH, Patrick AL, Wassel CL, Miljkovic I
(2017) Atherosclerosis 263: 198-204
MeSH Terms: Absorptiometry, Photon, Adiposity, Adult, African Continental Ancestry Group, Aged, Aorta, Abdominal, Aortic Diseases, Aortography, Chi-Square Distribution, Computed Tomography Angiography, Coronary Angiography, Coronary Artery Disease, Humans, Iliac Artery, Intra-Abdominal Fat, Liver, Logistic Models, Male, Middle Aged, Muscle, Skeletal, Odds Ratio, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors, Trinidad and Tobago, Vascular Calcification
Show Abstract · Added September 11, 2017
BACKGROUND AND AIMS - There is strong evidence that fat accumulating in non-adipose sites, "ectopic fat", is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), including vascular calcification. Most previous studies of this association have assessed only a single ectopic fat depot. Therefore, our aim was to assess the association of total, regional, and ectopic fat with abdominal aorto-illiac calcification (AAC) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in 798 African ancestry men.
METHODS - Participants (mean age 62) were from the Tobago Bone Health Study cohort. Adiposity was assessed via clinical examination, dual x-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography (CT). Ectopic fat depots included: abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), liver attenuation, and calf intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT). Vascular calcification was assessed by CT and quantified as present versus absent. Associations were tested using multiple logistic regression adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Models of ectopic fat were additionally adjusted for total body fat and standing height.
RESULTS - All adiposity measures, except VAT, were associated with AAC. Lower liver attenuation or greater calf IMAT was associated with 1.2-1.3-fold increased odds of AAC (p < 0.03 for both), though calf IMAT was a stronger predictor than liver attenuation (p < 0.001) when entered in a single model. No ectopic fat measure was associated with CAC.
CONCLUSIONS - Greater adiposity in the skeletal muscle and liver, but not in the visceral compartment, was associated with increased odds of AAC in African ancestry men. These results highlight the potential importance of both quantity and location of adiposity accumulation throughout the body.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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25 MeSH Terms
Discovery and fine-mapping of adiposity loci using high density imputation of genome-wide association studies in individuals of African ancestry: African Ancestry Anthropometry Genetics Consortium.
Ng MCY, Graff M, Lu Y, Justice AE, Mudgal P, Liu CT, Young K, Yanek LR, Feitosa MF, Wojczynski MK, Rand K, Brody JA, Cade BE, Dimitrov L, Duan Q, Guo X, Lange LA, Nalls MA, Okut H, Tajuddin SM, Tayo BO, Vedantam S, Bradfield JP, Chen G, Chen WM, Chesi A, Irvin MR, Padhukasahasram B, Smith JA, Zheng W, Allison MA, Ambrosone CB, Bandera EV, Bartz TM, Berndt SI, Bernstein L, Blot WJ, Bottinger EP, Carpten J, Chanock SJ, Chen YI, Conti DV, Cooper RS, Fornage M, Freedman BI, Garcia M, Goodman PJ, Hsu YH, Hu J, Huff CD, Ingles SA, John EM, Kittles R, Klein E, Li J, McKnight B, Nayak U, Nemesure B, Ogunniyi A, Olshan A, Press MF, Rohde R, Rybicki BA, Salako B, Sanderson M, Shao Y, Siscovick DS, Stanford JL, Stevens VL, Stram A, Strom SS, Vaidya D, Witte JS, Yao J, Zhu X, Ziegler RG, Zonderman AB, Adeyemo A, Ambs S, Cushman M, Faul JD, Hakonarson H, Levin AM, Nathanson KL, Ware EB, Weir DR, Zhao W, Zhi D, Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study (BMDCS) Group, Arnett DK, Grant SFA, Kardia SLR, Oloapde OI, Rao DC, Rotimi CN, Sale MM, Williams LK, Zemel BS, Becker DM, Borecki IB, Evans MK, Harris TB, Hirschhorn JN, Li Y, Patel SR, Psaty BM, Rotter JI, Wilson JG, Bowden DW, Cupples LA, Haiman CA, Loos RJF, North KE
(2017) PLoS Genet 13: e1006719
MeSH Terms: Adiposity, African Continental Ancestry Group, Anthropometry, Body Mass Index, Chromosome Mapping, European Continental Ancestry Group, Female, Gene Frequency, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genome-Wide Association Study, Humans, Linkage Disequilibrium, Male, Obesity, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Serine Endopeptidases, Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein, Waist-Hip Ratio
Show Abstract · Added August 22, 2017
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >300 loci associated with measures of adiposity including body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), but few have been identified through screening of the African ancestry genomes. We performed large scale meta-analyses and replications in up to 52,895 individuals for BMI and up to 23,095 individuals for WHRadjBMI from the African Ancestry Anthropometry Genetics Consortium (AAAGC) using 1000 Genomes phase 1 imputed GWAS to improve coverage of both common and low frequency variants in the low linkage disequilibrium African ancestry genomes. In the sex-combined analyses, we identified one novel locus (TCF7L2/HABP2) for WHRadjBMI and eight previously established loci at P < 5×10-8: seven for BMI, and one for WHRadjBMI in African ancestry individuals. An additional novel locus (SPRYD7/DLEU2) was identified for WHRadjBMI when combined with European GWAS. In the sex-stratified analyses, we identified three novel loci for BMI (INTS10/LPL and MLC1 in men, IRX4/IRX2 in women) and four for WHRadjBMI (SSX2IP, CASC8, PDE3B and ZDHHC1/HSD11B2 in women) in individuals of African ancestry or both African and European ancestry. For four of the novel variants, the minor allele frequency was low (<5%). In the trans-ethnic fine mapping of 47 BMI loci and 27 WHRadjBMI loci that were locus-wide significant (P < 0.05 adjusted for effective number of variants per locus) from the African ancestry sex-combined and sex-stratified analyses, 26 BMI loci and 17 WHRadjBMI loci contained ≤ 20 variants in the credible sets that jointly account for 99% posterior probability of driving the associations. The lead variants in 13 of these loci had a high probability of being causal. As compared to our previous HapMap imputed GWAS for BMI and WHRadjBMI including up to 71,412 and 27,350 African ancestry individuals, respectively, our results suggest that 1000 Genomes imputation showed modest improvement in identifying GWAS loci including low frequency variants. Trans-ethnic meta-analyses further improved fine mapping of putative causal variants in loci shared between the African and European ancestry populations.
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18 MeSH Terms
Fibroblast Growth Factor 23, Mineral Metabolism, and Adiposity in Normal Kidney Function.
Zaheer S, de Boer IH, Allison M, Brown JM, Psaty BM, Robinson-Cohen C, Michos ED, Ix JH, Kestenbaum B, Siscovick D, Vaidya A
(2017) J Clin Endocrinol Metab 102: 1387-1395
MeSH Terms: Adiposity, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Cross-Sectional Studies, Female, Fibroblast Growth Factors, Glomerular Filtration Rate, Humans, Kidney, Male, Middle Aged, Minerals, Renal Insufficiency, Chronic, Risk Factors
Show Abstract · Added September 19, 2017
Context - Obesity is associated with poor bone mineralization and quality. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) plays an important role in skeletal physiology.
Objective - To test hypothesis that greater adiposity results in higher FGF23 levels among individuals with normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).
Design, Setting, Participants - Cross-sectional analyses among participants with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73m2. We assessed the association between crude [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR); n = 5610] and refined (abdominal adipose tissue area by computed tomography; n = 1313) measures of adiposity and FGF23 using multivariable linear regression.
Main Outcome Measure - Serum FGF23.
Results - FGF23 was higher across BMI categories (BMI <25: 37.7; BMI 25 to 29.99: 38.7; BMI 30 to 39.99: 39.8; BMI ≥40: 40.9 pg/mL, unadjusted P trend < 0.0001). The association between BMI and FGF23 was independent of known confounders of FGF23 (adjusted β = +7.2% higher FGF23 per 10 kg/m2; P < 0.0001). Similar results were observed using WC and WHR. Abdominal adipose tissue area was also independently associated with higher FGF23 (P < 0.01). Notably, the positive associations between FGF23 and adiposity were observed despite the fact that eGFR did not decline and serum phosphate levels did not increase with adiposity.
Conclusion - In a large cohort with normal kidney function, adiposity was associated with higher FGF23 levels independent of known confounders, including eGFR and phosphate. Further studies are needed to evaluate the causes of higher FGF23 in settings of greater adiposity and the potential impact on skeletal health.
Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society
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14 MeSH Terms
Sarcopenic Obesity Definitions by Body Composition and Mortality in the Hemodialysis Patients.
Malhotra R, Deger SM, Salat H, Bian A, Stewart TG, Booker C, Vincz A, Pouliot B, Ikizler TA
(2017) J Ren Nutr 27: 84-90
MeSH Terms: Absorptiometry, Photon, Adiposity, Adult, Body Composition, Body Mass Index, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Obesity, Prevalence, Renal Dialysis, Retrospective Studies, Risk Factors, Sarcopenia
Show Abstract · Added December 27, 2016
OBJECTIVE - Sarcopenic obesity (SO), a combination of low muscle mass and high fat mass, is considered as risk factor for mortality in general population. It is unclear if SO affects mortality in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. In this study, we aimed to determine whether body composition as assessed by currently available SO definitions is related to all-cause mortality in MHD subjects. We also examined the impact of applying different definitions on the prevalence of SO in our MHD database.
DESIGN - Retrospective analysis.
SUBJECTS - Adult patients on MHD for at least 3 months with no acute illness studied in the clinical research center between 2003 and 2011.
INTERVENTION - Assessment of body composition was performed using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. SO (appendicular skeletal mass: arm lean mass + leg lean mass and fat mass) was defined according to Baumgartner definition, Janssen criteria 1, and Janssen criteria 2.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE - All-cause mortality and prevalence of SO. Patient deaths were ascertained from medical records and United States social security death index.
RESULTS - Of 122 participants, 62% were male; mean age was 46 years (interquartile range: 40, 54) in men and 50 years (44, 61) in women. Prevalence of SO ranged from 12% to 62% in men and 2% to 74% in female according to different definitions. SO prevalence was lowest using the Baumgartner criteria (all: 8%, men 12%, women: 2%) and highest according to the Janssen criteria 2 (all: 57%, men 46%, women 74%). There were 45 deaths during a median follow-up period of 44 (20, 76) months. SO by any definition was not statistically significantly associated with mortality during follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS - The current SO definitions are not applicable to predict increased risk of death in MHD patients. We found high degree of variation in the rates of SO when using different definitions. Future studies should focus on establishing MHD population-specific thresholds of muscle mass and adiposity for accurate prognostication.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
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16 MeSH Terms
Adiposity is inversely associated with hippocampal volume in African Americans and European Americans with diabetes.
Hsu FC, Yuan M, Bowden DW, Xu J, Smith SC, Wagenknecht LE, Langefeld CD, Divers J, Register TC, Carr JJ, Williamson JD, Sink KM, Maldjian JA, Freedman BI
(2016) J Diabetes Complications 30: 1506-1512
MeSH Terms: Adipose Tissue, Adiposity, African Americans, Aged, Body Mass Index, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, European Continental Ancestry Group, Female, Gray Matter, Hippocampus, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Male, Middle Aged, Organ Size, Tomography, X-Ray Computed, United States, Waist Circumference, White Matter
Show Abstract · Added September 29, 2016
AIMS - To assess associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and computed tomography-determined volumes of pericardial, visceral, and subcutaneous adipose tissue with magnetic resonance imaging-(MRI) based cerebral structure and cognitive performance in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D).
METHODS - This study was performed in 348 African Americans (AAs) and 256 European Americans (EAs) with T2D. Associations between adiposity measures with cerebral volumes of white matter (WMV), gray matter (GMV), white matter lesions, hippocampal GMV, and hippocampal WMV, cognitive performance and depression were examined using marginal models incorporating generalized estimating equations. All models were adjusted for age, sex, education, smoking, HbA1c, hypertension, statins, cardiovascular disease, MRI scanner (MRI outcomes only), and time between scans; some neuroimaging measures were additionally adjusted for intracranial volume.
RESULTS - Participants were 59.9% female with mean (SD) age 57.7(9.3)years, diabetes duration 9.6(6.8)years, and HbA1c 7.8(1.9)%. In AAs, inverse associations were detected between hippocampal GMV and both BMI (β [95% CI]-0.18 [-0.30, -0.07], P=0.0018) and WC (-0.23 [-0.35, -0.12], P=0.0001). In the full bi-ethnic sample, inverse associations were detected between hippocampal WMV and WC (P≤0.0001). Positive relationships were observed between BMI (P=0.0007) and WC (P<0.0001) with depression in EAs.
CONCLUSIONS - In patients with T2D, adiposity is inversely associated with hippocampal gray and white matter volumes.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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19 MeSH Terms
IRF3 promotes adipose inflammation and insulin resistance and represses browning.
Kumari M, Wang X, Lantier L, Lyubetskaya A, Eguchi J, Kang S, Tenen D, Roh HC, Kong X, Kazak L, Ahmad R, Rosen ED
(2016) J Clin Invest 126: 2839-54
MeSH Terms: 3T3-L1 Cells, Adipocytes, Adipose Tissue, Adiposity, Adult, Animals, Blood Glucose, Diet, Female, Gene Expression Regulation, Glucose Clamp Technique, Glucose Transporter Type 4, HEK293 Cells, Homeostasis, Humans, Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, Interferon Regulatory Factor-3, Male, Mice, Mice, Transgenic, Middle Aged, NF-kappa B, Obesity, Toll-Like Receptor 3, Toll-Like Receptor 4
Show Abstract · Added May 16, 2019
The chronic inflammatory state that accompanies obesity is a major contributor to insulin resistance and other dysfunctional adaptations in adipose tissue. Cellular and secreted factors promote the inflammatory milieu of obesity, but the transcriptional pathways that drive these processes are not well described. Although the canonical inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB is considered to be the major driver of adipocyte inflammation, members of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family may also play a role in this process. Here, we determined that IRF3 expression is upregulated in the adipocytes of obese mice and humans. Signaling through TLR3 and TLR4, which lie upstream of IRF3, induced insulin resistance in murine adipocytes, while IRF3 knockdown prevented insulin resistance. Furthermore, improved insulin sensitivity in IRF3-deficient mice was associated with reductions in intra-adipose and systemic inflammation in the high fat-fed state, enhanced browning of subcutaneous fat, and increased adipose expression of GLUT4. Taken together, the data indicate that IRF3 is a major transcriptional regulator of adipose inflammation and is involved in maintaining systemic glucose and energy homeostasis.
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