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Family-based methods are a potentially powerful tool to identify trait-defining genetic variants in extended families, particularly when used to complement conventional association analysis. We utilized two-point linkage analysis and single variant association analysis to evaluate whole exome sequencing (WES) data from 1205 Hispanic Americans (78 families) from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study. WES identified 211,612 variants above the minor allele frequency threshold of ≥0.005. These variants were tested for linkage and/or association with 50 cardiometabolic traits after quality control checks. Two-point linkage analysis yielded 10,580,600 logarithm of the odds (LOD) scores with 1148 LOD scores ≥3, 183 LOD scores ≥4, and 29 LOD scores ≥5. The maximal novel LOD score was 5.50 for rs2289043:T>C, in UNC5C with subcutaneous adipose tissue volume. Association analysis identified 13 variants attaining genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10 ), with the strongest association between rs651821:C>T in APOA5 and triglyceride levels (P = 3.67 × 10 ). Overall, there was a 5.2-fold increase in the number of informative variants detected by WES compared to exome chip analysis in this population, nearly 30% of which were novel variants relative to the Database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (dbSNP) build 138. Thus, integration of results from two-point linkage and single-variant association analysis from WES data enabled identification of novel signals potentially contributing to cardiometabolic traits.
© 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.
It has been shown that CD1d expression and glycolipid-reactive, CD1d-restricted NKT cells exacerbate the development of obesity and insulin resistance in mice. However, the relevant CD1d-expressing cells that influence the effects of NKT cells on the progression of obesity remain incompletely defined. In this study, we have demonstrated that 3T3-L1 adipocytes can present endogenous ligands to NKT cells, leading to IFN-γ production, which in turn, stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes to enhance expression of CD1d and CCL2, and decrease expression of adiponectin. Furthermore, adipocyte-specific CD1d deletion decreased the size of the visceral adipose tissue mass and enhanced insulin sensitivity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Accordingly, NKT cells were less activated, IFN-γ production was significantly reduced, and levels of adiponectin were increased in these animals as compared with control mice on HFD. Importantly, macrophage recruitment into the adipose tissue of adipocyte-specific CD1d-deficient mice was significantly blunted. These findings indicate that interactions between NKT cells and CD1d-expressing adipocytes producing endogenous NKT cell ligands play a critical role in the induction of inflammation and functional modulation of adipose tissue that leads to obesity.
Dissipating excess calories as heat through therapeutic stimulation of brown adipose tissues (BAT) has been proposed as a potential treatment for obesity-linked disorders. Here, we describe the generation of a humanized effector-less bispecific antibody that activates fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 1/βKlotho complex, a common receptor for FGF21 and FGF19. Using this molecule, we show that antibody-mediated activation of FGFR1/βKlotho complex in mice induces sustained energy expenditure in BAT, browning of white adipose tissue, weight loss, and improvements in obesity-associated metabolic derangements including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hepatosteatosis. In mice and cynomolgus monkeys, FGFR1/βKlotho activation increased serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin, which appears to contribute over time by enhancing the amplitude of the metabolic benefits. At the same time, insulin sensitization by FGFR1/βKlotho activation occurs even before the onset of weight loss in a manner that is independent of adiponectin. Together, selective activation of FGFR1/βKlotho complex with a long acting therapeutic antibody represents an attractive approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and other obesity-linked disorders through enhanced energy expenditure, insulin sensitization and induction of high-molecular-weight adiponectin.
Adipocytes have key endocrine roles, mediated in large part by secreted protein hormones termed adipokines. The adipokine adiponectin is well known for its role in sensitizing peripheral tissues to insulin, and several lines of evidence suggest that adiponectin might also modulate stem cells/precursors. It remains unclear, however, how adiponectin signaling controls stem cells and whether this role is secondary to its insulin-sensitizing effects or distinct. Drosophila adipocytes also function as an endocrine organ and, although no obvious adiponectin homolog has been identified, Drosophila AdipoR encodes a well-conserved homolog of mammalian adiponectin receptors. Here, we generate a null AdipoR allele and use clonal analysis to demonstrate an intrinsic requirement for AdipoR in germline stem cell (GSC) maintenance in the Drosophila ovary. AdipoR null GSCs are not fully responsive to bone morphogenetic protein ligands from the niche and have a slight reduction in E-cadherin levels at the GSC-niche junction. Conversely, germline-specific overexpression of AdipoR inhibits natural GSC loss, suggesting that reduction in adiponectin signaling might contribute to the normal decline in GSC numbers observed over time in wild-type females. Surprisingly, AdipoR is not required for insulin sensitization of the germline, leading us to speculate that insulin sensitization is a more recently acquired function than stem cell regulation in the evolutionary history of adiponectin signaling. Our findings establish Drosophila female GSCs as a new system for future studies addressing the molecular mechanisms whereby adiponectin receptor signaling modulates stem cell fate.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
We previously identified a low-frequency (1.1 %) coding variant (G45R; rs200573126) in the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) which was the basis for a multipoint microsatellite linkage signal (LOD = 8.2) for plasma adiponectin levels in Hispanic families. We have empirically evaluated the ability of data from targeted common variants, exome chip genotyping, and genome-wide association study data to detect linkage and association to adiponectin protein levels at this locus. Simple two-point linkage and association analyses were performed in 88 Hispanic families (1,150 individuals) using 10,958 SNPs on chromosome 3. Approaches were compared for their ability to map the functional variant, G45R, which was strongly linked (two-point LOD = 20.98) and powerfully associated (p value = 8.1 × 10(-50)). Over 450 SNPs within a broad 61 Mb interval around rs200573126 showed nominal evidence of linkage (LOD > 3) but only four other SNPs in this region were associated with p values < 1.0 × 10(-4). When G45R was accounted for, the maximum LOD score across the interval dropped to 4.39 and the best p value was 1.1 × 10(-5). Linked and/or associated variants ranged in frequency (0.0018-0.50) and type (coding, non-coding) and had little detectable linkage disequilibrium with rs200573126 (r (2) < 0.20). In addition, the two-point linkage approach empirically outperformed multipoint microsatellite and multipoint SNP analysis. In the absence of data for rs200573126, family-based linkage analysis using a moderately dense SNP dataset, including both common and low-frequency variants, resulted in stronger evidence for an adiponectin locus than association data alone. Thus, linkage analysis can be a useful tool to facilitate identification of high-impact genetic variants.
BACKGROUND - Adiponectin, an adipose tissue derived hormone, is known to have insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherogenic properties in the general population. Adiponectin secretion is suppressed by systemic inflammation, a highly prevalent condition in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. We evaluated whether short-term administration of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) improves adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivity in MHD patients.
METHODS - Ad hoc analysis was performed on a pilot randomized placebo-controlled trial of the administration of IL-1ra in chronically inflamed MHD patients. Twenty-two patients were randomly assigned to receive 100 mg of IL-1ra or placebo (1:1) for 4 weeks, and 14 completed the trial. ANCOVA was used to compare percent change from baseline to 4 weeks. The primary outcome was percent change in adiponectin and the secondary outcomes were changes in leptin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (LAR).
RESULTS - Patients' mean age was 49 ± 13 years, and 71 % were males. At baseline, the median values for adiponectin, leptin, LAR and HOMA-IR were 11.5 μg/ml [interquartile range (IQR) 9, 28.5], 17.8 ng/ml (3.9, 50.0), 2.20 (0.13, 3.98), and 2.8 (2.0, 3.6), respectively. IL-1ra administration resulted in a mean percent increase in serum adiponectin of 22 % vs. 14 % decrease in the placebo arm (p = 0.003). Leptin, LAR or HOMA-IR levels did not change in either arm.
CONCLUSIONS - Short-term administration of IL-1ra significantly increased adiponectin levels among prevalent MHD patients. The intervention did not impact insulin sensitivity parameters. Studies of longer duration and larger sample size are needed to further evaluate the potential effect of anti-inflammatory interventions on metabolic markers and insulin sensitivity in MHD patients.
BACKGROUND - High glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are associated with increased levels of oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in the general population. Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients are known to have excessive oxidative stress burden and inflammation. In this study, we examined the relationship between dietary GI or GL and markers of oxidative stress or inflammation among prevalent MHD patients.
METHODS - A registered dietitian obtained GI, GL and other dietary data from 58 MHD patients. Two separate 24-h diet recalls (a hemodialysis day and a non-hemodialysis day) were analyzed using the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) software. Plasma or serum concentrations of F2-isoprostanes, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), leptin and adiponectin (ADPN) were measured in fasting state. Fat mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Cross-sectional associations between GI, GL and markers of interest were examined by multiple regression analysis with adjustment for potential covariates.
RESULTS - Mean (±SD) age, body mass index (BMI) and total trunk fat were 47 ± 12 years, 29.5 ± 6.8 kg/m(2) and 16.4 ± 8.8 kg, respectively. Dietary GI was associated with trunk fat (r = -0.182, P = 0.05) but not with F2-isoprostanes and hsCRP. In contrast, GL was significantly associated with F2-isoprostanes (P = 0.002), in unadjusted analysis, which remained in adjusted analyses, adjusting for age and sex (P = 0.005), and after adjusting for BMI, trunk fat and waist/hip ratio (P = 0.004). Addition of leptin or ADPN did not alter the significance of the association. GL also correlated with hsCRP (P = 0.03), but this association was modified by BMI and trunk fat.
CONCLUSIONS - Dietary GL is significantly associated with markers of oxidative stress and inflammation among prevalent MHD patients, independent of the body composition and adipocytokines. These data indicate the importance of the contents of dietary nutrient intake composition and its potential role in determining the metabolic disturbances in MHD patients.
Blood levels of adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted protein correlated with metabolic and cardiovascular risks, are highly heritable. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies for adiponectin levels have identified 14 loci harboring variants associated with blood levels of adiponectin. To identify novel adiponectin-associated loci, particularly those of importance in East Asians, we conducted a meta-analysis of GWA studies for adiponectin in 7827 individuals, followed by two stages of replications in 4298 and 5954 additional individuals. We identified a novel adiponectin-associated locus on chromosome 10 near WDR11-FGFR2 (P = 3.0 × 10(-14)) and provided suggestive evidence for a locus on chromosome 12 near OR8S1-LALBA (P = 1.2 × 10(-7)). Of the adiponectin-associated loci previously described, we confirmed the association at CDH13 (P = 6.8 × 10(-165)), ADIPOQ (P = 1.8 × 10(-22)), PEPD (P = 3.6 × 10(-12)), CMIP (P = 2.1 × 10(-10)), ZNF664 (P = 2.3 × 10(-7)) and GPR109A (P = 7.4 × 10(-6)). Conditional analysis at ADIPOQ revealed a second signal with suggestive evidence of association only after conditioning on the lead SNP (Pinitial = 0.020; Pconditional = 7.0 × 10(-7)). We further confirmed the independence of two pairs of closely located loci (<2 Mb) on chromosome 16 at CMIP and CDH13, and on chromosome 12 at GPR109A and ZNF664. In addition, the newly identified signal near WDR11-FGFR2 exhibited evidence of association with triglycerides (P = 3.3 × 10(-4)), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, P = 4.9 × 10(-4)) and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted waist-hip ratio (P = 9.8 × 10(-3)). These findings improve our knowledge of the genetic basis of adiponectin variation, demonstrate the shared allelic architecture for adiponectin with lipids and central obesity and motivate further studies of underlying mechanisms.
OBJECTIVE - Adipose tissue (AT)-specific inflammation is considered to mediate the pathological consequences of obesity and macrophages are known to activate inflammatory pathways in obese AT. Because cyclooxygenases play a central role in regulating the inflammatory processes, we sought to determine the role of hematopoietic cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) in modulating AT inflammation in obesity.
MATERIALS/METHODS - Bone marrow transplantation was performed to delete COX-1 in hematopoietic cells. Briefly, female wild type (wt) mice were lethally irradiated and injected with bone marrow (BM) cells collected from wild type (COX-1+/+) or COX-1 knock-out (COX-1-/-) donor mice. The mice were fed a high fat diet for 16 weeks.
RESULTS - The mice that received COX-1-/- bone marrow (BM-COX-1-/-) exhibited a significant increase in fasting glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides in the circulation compared to control (BM-COX-1+/+) mice. Markers of AT-inflammation were increased and were associated with increased leptin and decreased adiponectin in plasma. Hepatic inflammation was reduced with a concomitant reduction in TXB2 levels. The hepatic mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and lipid transport was increased while expression of genes involved in regulating hepatic glucose output was reduced in BM-COX-1-/- mice. Finally, renal inflammation and markers of renal glucose release were increased in BM-COX-1-/- mice.
CONCLUSION - Hematopoietic COX-1 deletion results in impairments in metabolic homeostasis which may be partly due to increased AT inflammation and dysregulated adipokine profile. An increase in renal glucose release and hepatic lipogenesis/lipid transport may also play a role, at least in part, in mediating hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, respectively.
Published by Elsevier Inc.