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The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) regulates metabolic genes in skeletal muscle and contributes to the response of muscle to exercise. Muscle PGC-1α transgenic expression and exercise both increase the expression of thermogenic genes within white adipose. How the PGC-1α-mediated response to exercise in muscle conveys signals to other tissues remains incompletely defined. We employed a metabolomic approach to examine metabolites secreted from myocytes with forced expression of PGC-1α, and identified β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) as a small molecule myokine. BAIBA increases the expression of brown adipocyte-specific genes in white adipocytes and β-oxidation in hepatocytes both in vitro and in vivo through a PPARα-mediated mechanism, induces a brown adipose-like phenotype in human pluripotent stem cells, and improves glucose homeostasis in mice. In humans, plasma BAIBA concentrations are increased with exercise and inversely associated with metabolic risk factors. BAIBA may thus contribute to exercise-induced protection from metabolic diseases.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE - Adipose tissue inflammation with immune cell recruitment plays a key role in obesity-induced insulin resistance (IR). Long-chain (LC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have anti-inflammatory potential; however, their individual effects on adipose IR are ill defined. We hypothesized that EPA and DHA may differentially affect macrophage-induced IR in adipocytes.
METHODS - J774.2 macrophages pretreated with EPA or DHA (50 μM for 5 days) were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ng/ml for 30 min-48 h). Cytokine secretion profiles and activation status of macrophages were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry. Pretreated macrophages were seeded onto transwell inserts and placed over 3T3-L1 adipocytes for 24-72 h; effects on adipocyte-macrophage cytokine cross-talk and insulin-stimulated ³H-glucose transport into adipocytes were monitored.
RESULTS - DHA had more potent anti-inflammatory effects relative to EPA, with marked attenuation of LPS-induced nuclear factor (NF)κB activation and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α secretion in macrophages. DHA specifically enhanced anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10 secretion and reduced the expression of proinflammatory M1 (F4/80⁺/CD11⁺) macrophages. Co-culture of DHA-enriched macrophages with adipocytes attenuated IL-6 and TNFα secretion while enhancing IL-10 secretion. Conditioned media (CM) from DHA-enriched macrophages attenuated adipocyte NFκB activation. Adipocytes co-cultured with DHA-enriched macrophages maintained insulin sensitivity with enhanced insulin-stimulated ³H-glucose transport, GLUT4 translocation and preservation of insulin-receptor substrate-1 expression compared to co-culture with untreated macrophages. We confirmed that IL-10 expressed by DHA-enriched macrophages attenuates the CM-induced proinflammatory IR phenotype in adipocytes.
CONCLUSIONS - We demonstrate an attenuated proinflammatory phenotype of DHA-pretreated macrophages, which when co-cultured with adipocytes partially preserved insulin sensitivity.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abnormalities in adipocytes play an important role in various conditions, including the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, but little is known about alterations at the protein level. We therefore sought to (1) comprehensively characterize the human adipocyte proteome for the first time and (2) demonstrate feasibility of measuring adipocyte protein abundances by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE and high performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). In adipocytes isolated from approximately 0.5 g of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue of three healthy, lean subjects, we identified a total of 1493 proteins. Triplicate analysis indicated a 22.5% coefficient of variation of protein abundances. Proteins ranged from 5.8 to 629 kDa and included a large number of proteins involved in lipid metabolism, such as fatty acid transport, fatty acid oxidation, lipid storage, lipolysis, and lipid droplet maintenance. Furthermore, we found most glycolysis enzymes and numerous proteins associated with oxidative stress, protein synthesis and degradation as well as some adipokines. 22% of all proteins were of mitochondrial origin. These results provide the first detailed characterization of the human adipocyte proteome, suggest an important role of adipocyte mitochondria, and demonstrate feasibility of this approach to examine alterations of adipocyte protein abundances in human diseases.
It is generally assumed that white adipocytes arise from resident adipose tissue mesenchymal progenitor cells. We challenge this paradigm by defining a hematopoietic origin for both the de novo development of a subset of white adipocytes in adults and a previously uncharacterized adipose tissue resident mesenchymal progenitor population. Lineage and cytogenetic analysis revealed that bone marrow progenitor (BMP)-derived adipocytes and adipocyte progenitors arise from hematopoietic cells via the myeloid lineage in the absence of cell fusion. Global gene expression analysis indicated that the BMP-derived fat cells are bona fide adipocytes but differ from conventional white or brown adipocytes in decreased expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and lipid oxidation, and increased inflammatory gene expression. The BMP-derived adipocytes accumulate with age, occur in higher numbers in visceral than in subcutaneous fat, and in female versus male mice. BMP-derived adipocytes may, therefore, account in part for adipose depot heterogeneity and detrimental changes in adipose metabolism and inflammation with aging and adiposity.
Chronic ethanol consumption disrupts whole-body lipid metabolism. Here we tested the hypothesis that regulation of triglyceride homeostasis in adipose tissue is vulnerable to long-term ethanol exposure. After chronic ethanol feeding, total body fat content as well as the quantity of epididymal adipose tissue of male Wistar rats was decreased compared with pair-fed controls. Integrated rates of in vivo triglyceride turnover in epididymal adipose tissue were measured using (2)H(2)O as a tracer. Triglyceride turnover in adipose tissue was increased due to a 2.3-fold increase in triglyceride degradation in ethanol-fed rats compared with pair-fed controls with no effect of ethanol on triglyceride synthesis. Because increased lipolysis accompanied by the release of free fatty acids into the circulation is associated with insulin resistance and liver injury, we focused on determining the mechanisms for increased lipolysis in adipose tissue after chronic ethanol feeding. Chronic ethanol feeding suppressed beta-adrenergic receptor-stimulated lipolysis in both in vivo and ex vivo assays; thus, enhanced triglyceride degradation during ethanol feeding was not due to increased beta-adrenergic-mediated lipolysis. Instead, chronic ethanol feeding markedly impaired insulin-mediated suppression of lipolysis in conscious rats during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp as well as in adipocytes isolated from epididymal and subcutaneous adipose tissue. These data demonstrate for the first time that chronic ethanol feeding increased the rate of triglyceride degradation in adipose tissue. Furthermore, this enhanced rate of lipolysis was due to a suppression of the anti-lipolytic effects of insulin in adipocytes after chronic ethanol feeding.