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APC Inhibits Ligand-Independent Wnt Signaling by the Clathrin Endocytic Pathway.
Saito-Diaz K, Benchabane H, Tiwari A, Tian A, Li B, Thompson JJ, Hyde AS, Sawyer LM, Jodoin JN, Santos E, Lee LA, Coffey RJ, Beauchamp RD, Williams CS, Kenworthy AK, Robbins DJ, Ahmed Y, Lee E
(2018) Dev Cell 44: 566-581.e8
MeSH Terms: Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein, Animals, Cells, Cultured, Clathrin, Drosophila melanogaster, Endocytosis, Female, Humans, Infant, Ligands, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Middle Aged, Wnt Proteins, Wnt Signaling Pathway, beta Catenin
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2018
Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutations cause Wnt pathway activation in human cancers. Current models for APC action emphasize its role in promoting β-catenin degradation downstream of Wnt receptors. Unexpectedly, we find that blocking Wnt receptor activity in APC-deficient cells inhibits Wnt signaling independently of Wnt ligand. We also show that inducible loss of APC is rapidly followed by Wnt receptor activation and increased β-catenin levels. In contrast, APC2 loss does not promote receptor activation. We show that APC exists in a complex with clathrin and that Wnt pathway activation in APC-deficient cells requires clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Finally, we demonstrate conservation of this mechanism in Drosophila intestinal stem cells. We propose a model in which APC and APC2 function to promote β-catenin degradation, and APC also acts as a molecular "gatekeeper" to block receptor activation via the clathrin pathway.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
0 Communities
4 Members
0 Resources
18 MeSH Terms
The Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Approach to Resection of Pancreatic Mucinous Cystic Neoplasms: An Underused Technique?
Postlewait LM, Ethun CG, McInnis MR, Merchant N, Parikh A, Idrees K, Isom CA, Hawkins W, Fields RC, Strand M, Weber SM, Cho CS, Salem A, Martin RCG, Scoggins C, Bentrem D, Kim HJ, Carr J, Ahmad S, Abbott D, Wilson GC, Kooby DA, Maithel SK
(2018) Am Surg 84: 56-62
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Blood Loss, Surgical, Cystadenoma, Mucinous, Female, Hand-Assisted Laparoscopy, Humans, Laparoscopy, Length of Stay, Male, Middle Aged, Pancreatectomy, Pancreatic Neoplasms, Retrospective Studies, Risk Factors, Treatment Outcome, United States
Show Abstract · Added April 10, 2018
Pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) are rare tumors typically of the distal pancreas that harbor malignant potential. Although resection is recommended, data are limited on optimal operative approaches to distal pancreatectomy for MCN. MCN resections (2000-2014; eight institutions) were included. Outcomes of minimally invasive and open MCN resections were compared. A total of 289 patients underwent distal pancreatectomy for MCN: 136(47%) minimally invasive and 153(53%) open. Minimally invasive procedures were associated with smaller MCN size (3.9 vs 6.8 cm; P = 0.001), lower operative blood loss (192 vs 392 mL; P = 0.001), and shorter hospital stay(5 vs 7 days; P = 0.001) compared with open. Despite higher American Society of Anesthesiologists class, hand-assisted (n = 46) had similar advantages as laparoscopic/robotic (n = 76). When comparing hand-assisted to open, although MCN size was slightly smaller (4.1 vs 6.8 cm; P = 0.001), specimen length, operative time, and nodal yield were identical. Similar to laparoscopic/robotic, hand-assisted had lower operative blood loss (161 vs 392 mL; P = 0.001) and shorter hospital stay (5 vs 7 days; P = 0.03) compared with open, without increased complications. Hand-assisted laparoscopic technique is a useful approach for MCN resection because specimen length, lymph node yield, operative time, and complication profiles are similar to open procedures, but it still offers the advantages of a minimally invasive approach. Hand-assisted laparoscopy should be considered as an alternative to open technique or as a successive step before converting from total laparoscopic to open distal pancreatectomy for MCN.
0 Communities
1 Members
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MeSH Terms
Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis harbor colonic biofilms containing tumorigenic bacteria.
Dejea CM, Fathi P, Craig JM, Boleij A, Taddese R, Geis AL, Wu X, DeStefano Shields CE, Hechenbleikner EM, Huso DL, Anders RA, Giardiello FM, Wick EC, Wang H, Wu S, Pardoll DM, Housseau F, Sears CL
(2018) Science 359: 592-597
MeSH Terms: Adenomatous Polyposis Coli, Animals, Bacterial Toxins, Bacteroides fragilis, Biofilms, Carcinogenesis, Colon, Colonic Neoplasms, DNA Damage, Escherichia coli, Gastrointestinal Microbiome, Humans, Interleukin-17, Intestinal Mucosa, Metalloendopeptidases, Mice, Peptides, Polyketides, Precancerous Conditions
Show Abstract · Added March 20, 2018
Individuals with sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) frequently harbor abnormalities in the composition of the gut microbiome; however, the microbiota associated with precancerous lesions in hereditary CRC remains largely unknown. We studied colonic mucosa of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), who develop benign precursor lesions (polyps) early in life. We identified patchy bacterial biofilms composed predominately of and Genes for colibactin () and toxin (), encoding secreted oncotoxins, were highly enriched in FAP patients' colonic mucosa compared to healthy individuals. Tumor-prone mice cocolonized with (expressing colibactin), and enterotoxigenic showed increased interleukin-17 in the colon and DNA damage in colonic epithelium with faster tumor onset and greater mortality, compared to mice with either bacterial strain alone. These data suggest an unexpected link between early neoplasia of the colon and tumorigenic bacteria.
Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
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1 Members
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19 MeSH Terms
Bacteroides fragilis Toxin Coordinates a Pro-carcinogenic Inflammatory Cascade via Targeting of Colonic Epithelial Cells.
Chung L, Thiele Orberg E, Geis AL, Chan JL, Fu K, DeStefano Shields CE, Dejea CM, Fathi P, Chen J, Finard BB, Tam AJ, McAllister F, Fan H, Wu X, Ganguly S, Lebid A, Metz P, Van Meerbeke SW, Huso DL, Wick EC, Pardoll DM, Wan F, Wu S, Sears CL, Housseau F
(2018) Cell Host Microbe 23: 203-214.e5
MeSH Terms: Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein, Animals, Bacterial Toxins, Bacteroides fragilis, Carcinogenesis, Cell Line, Tumor, Colon, Colorectal Neoplasms, Enzyme Activation, Epithelial Cells, Female, Gene Deletion, HT29 Cells, Humans, Inflammation, Interleukin-17, Male, Metalloendopeptidases, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Myeloid Cells, Receptors, Interleukin-17, Receptors, Interleukin-8B, STAT3 Transcription Factor, Transcription Factor RelA
Show Abstract · Added March 20, 2018
Pro-carcinogenic bacteria have the potential to initiate and/or promote colon cancer, in part via immune mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Using Apc mice colonized with the human pathobiont enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) as a model of microbe-induced colon tumorigenesis, we show that the Bacteroides fragilis toxin (BFT) triggers a pro-carcinogenic, multi-step inflammatory cascade requiring IL-17R, NF-κB, and Stat3 signaling in colonic epithelial cells (CECs). Although necessary, Stat3 activation in CECs is not sufficient to trigger ETBF colon tumorigenesis. Notably, IL-17-dependent NF-κB activation in CECs induces a proximal to distal mucosal gradient of C-X-C chemokines, including CXCL1, that mediates the recruitment of CXCR2-expressing polymorphonuclear immature myeloid cells with parallel onset of ETBF-mediated distal colon tumorigenesis. Thus, BFT induces a pro-carcinogenic signaling relay from the CEC to a mucosal Th17 response that results in selective NF-κB activation in distal colon CECs, which collectively triggers myeloid-cell-dependent distal colon tumorigenesis.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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1 Members
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26 MeSH Terms
p120-Catenin is an obligate haploinsufficient tumor suppressor in intestinal neoplasia.
Short SP, Kondo J, Smalley-Freed WG, Takeda H, Dohn MR, Powell AE, Carnahan RH, Washington MK, Tripathi M, Payne DM, Jenkins NA, Copeland NG, Coffey RJ, Reynolds AB
(2017) J Clin Invest 127: 4462-4476
MeSH Terms: Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein, Animals, Catenins, Haploinsufficiency, Intestinal Neoplasms, Mice, Mice, Knockout, rho-Associated Kinases
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2018
p120-Catenin (p120) functions as a tumor suppressor in intestinal cancer, but the mechanism is unclear. Here, using conditional p120 knockout in Apc-sensitized mouse models of intestinal cancer, we have identified p120 as an "obligatory" haploinsufficient tumor suppressor. Whereas monoallelic loss of p120 was associated with a significant increase in tumor multiplicity, loss of both alleles was never observed in tumors from these mice. Moreover, forced ablation of the second allele did not further enhance tumorigenesis, but instead induced synthetic lethality in combination with Apc loss of heterozygosity. In tumor-derived organoid cultures, elimination of both p120 alleles resulted in caspase-3-dependent apoptosis that was blocked by inhibition of Rho kinase (ROCK). With ROCK inhibition, however, p120-ablated organoids exhibited a branching phenotype and a substantial increase in cell proliferation. Access to data from Sleeping Beauty mutagenesis screens afforded an opportunity to directly assess the tumorigenic impact of p120 haploinsufficiency relative to other candidate drivers. Remarkably, p120 ranked third among the 919 drivers identified. Cofactors α-catenin and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) were also among the highest scoring candidates, indicating a mechanism at the level of the intact complex that may play an important role at very early stages of of intestinal tumorigenesis while simultaneously restricting outright loss via synthetic lethality.
0 Communities
2 Members
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8 MeSH Terms
PUFA levels in erythrocyte membrane phospholipids are differentially associated with colorectal adenoma risk.
Rifkin SB, Shrubsole MJ, Cai Q, Smalley WE, Ness RM, Swift LL, Zheng W, Murff HJ
(2017) Br J Nutr 117: 1615-1622
MeSH Terms: Adenoma, Arachidonic Acid, Biomarkers, Case-Control Studies, Colorectal Neoplasms, Diet, Eicosapentaenoic Acid, Erythrocyte Membrane, Female, Humans, Logistic Models, Male, Middle Aged, Odds Ratio, Phospholipids, Risk Factors, Tennessee
Show Abstract · Added April 3, 2018
Dietary intake of PUFA has been associated with colorectal neoplasm risk; however, results from observational studies have been inconsistent. Most prior studies have utilised self-reported dietary measures to assess fatty acid exposure which might be more susceptible to measurement error and biases compared with biomarkers. The purpose of this study was to determine whether erythrocyte phospholipid membrane PUFA percentages are associated with colorectal adenoma risk. We included data from 904 adenoma cases and 835 polyp-free controls who participated in the Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study, a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Erythrocyte membrane PUFA percentages were measured using GC. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted OR for risk of colorectal adenomas with erythrocyte membrane PUFA. Higher erythrocyte membrane percentages of arachidonic acid was associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenomas (adjusted OR 1·66; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·62, P trend=0·02) comparing the highest tertile to the lowest tertile. The effect size for arachidonic acid was more pronounced when restricting the analysis to advanced adenomas only. Higher erythrocyte membrane EPA percentages were associated with a trend towards a reduced risk of advanced colorectal adenomas (P trend=0·05). Erythrocyte membrane arachidonic acid percentages are associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenomas.
0 Communities
1 Members
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MeSH Terms
Genetic variation in SLC7A2 interacts with calcium and magnesium intakes in modulating the risk of colorectal polyps.
Sun P, Zhu X, Shrubsole MJ, Ness RM, Hibler EA, Cai Q, Long J, Chen Z, Li G, Hou L, Smalley WE, Edwards TL, Giovannucci E, Zheng W, Dai Q
(2017) J Nutr Biochem 47: 35-40
MeSH Terms: Adenoma, Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic, Calcium, Dietary, Case-Control Studies, Colonic Polyps, Colonoscopy, Colorectal Neoplasms, Diet, Healthy, Dietary Supplements, Female, Genetic Association Studies, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Humans, Magnesium, Male, Middle Aged, Neoplasm Grading, Patient Compliance, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Self Report, Tennessee, Tumor Burden
Show Abstract · Added April 3, 2018
Solute carrier family 7, member 2 (SLC7A2) gene encodes a protein called cationic amino acid transporter 2, which mediates the transport of arginine, lysine and ornithine. l-Arginine is necessary for cancer development and progression, including an important role in colorectal cancer pathogenesis. Furthermore, previous studies found that both calcium and magnesium inhibit the transport of arginine. Thus, calcium, magnesium or calcium:magnesium intake ratio may interact with polymorphisms in the SLC7A2 gene in association with colorectal cancer. We conducted a two-phase case-control study within the Tennessee Colorectal Polyps Study. In the first phase, 23 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the SLC7A2 gene were included for 725 colorectal adenoma cases and 755 controls. In the second phase conducted in an independent set of 607 cases and 2113 controls, we replicated the significant findings in the first phase. We observed that rs2720574 significantly interacted with calcium:magnesium intake ratio in association with odds of adenoma, particularly multiple/advanced adenoma. In the combined analysis, among those with a calcium:magnesium intake ratio below 2.78, individuals who carried GC/CC genotypes demonstrated higher odds of adenoma [OR (95% CI):1.36 (1.11-1.68)] and multiple/advanced adenoma [OR (95% CI): 1.68 (1.28, 2.20)] than those who carried the GG genotype. The P values for interactions between calcium:magnesium intake ratio and rs2720574 were .002 for all adenomas and <.001 for multiple/advanced adenoma. Among those with the GG genotype, a high calcium:magnesium ratio was associated with increased odds of colorectal adenoma [OR (95% CI): 1.73 (1.27-2.36)] and advanced/multiple adenomas [1.62 (1.05-2.50)], whereas among those with the GC/CC genotypes, high calcium:magnesium ratio was related to reduced odds of colorectal adenoma [0.64 (0.42-0.99)] and advanced/multiple adenomas [0.55 (0.31-1.00)].
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
0 Communities
2 Members
0 Resources
22 MeSH Terms
Evaluation of a novel fluorescent nanobeacon for targeted imaging of Thomsen-Friedenreich associated colorectal cancer.
Nakase H, Sakuma S, Fukuchi T, Yoshino T, Mohri K, Miyata K, Kumagai H, Hiwatari KI, Tsubaki K, Ikejima T, Tobita E, Zhu M, Wilson KJ, Washington K, Gore JC, Pham W
(2017) Int J Nanomedicine 12: 1747-1755
MeSH Terms: Adenocarcinoma, Adenoma, Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate, Colorectal Neoplasms, Fluorescent Dyes, Humans, Microscopy, Fluorescence, Molecular Probes, Nanoparticles, Optical Imaging, Peanut Agglutinin
Show Abstract · Added April 6, 2017
The Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) antigen represents a prognostic biomarker of colorectal carcinoma. Here, using a nanobeacon, the surface of which was fabricated with peanut agglutinin as TF-binding molecules, we demonstrate that the nanobeacon is able to detect TF antigen in frozen and freshly biopsied polyps using fluorescence microscopy. Our results provide important clues about how to detect aberrant colonic tissues in the most timely fashion. Given the versatile application method for this topical nanobeacon, the protocol used in this work is amenable to clinical colonoscopy. Moreover, the prospects of clinical translation of this technology are evident.
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2 Members
0 Resources
11 MeSH Terms
Comparison of biomarker expression between proximal and distal colorectal adenomas: The Tennessee-Indiana Adenoma Recurrence Study.
Su T, Washington MK, Ness RM, Rex DK, Smalley WE, Ulbright TM, Cai Q, Zheng W, Shrubsole MJ
(2017) Mol Carcinog 56: 761-773
MeSH Terms: Adenoma, Adult, Aged, Biomarkers, Tumor, Colon, Colorectal Neoplasms, Female, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, Indiana, Male, Middle Aged, Neoplasm Recurrence, Local, Rectum, Tennessee
Show Abstract · Added April 3, 2018
It is unclear if proximal and distal traditional adenomas present with differences in molecular events which contribute to cancer heterogeneity by tumor anatomical subsite. Participants from a colonoscopy-based study (n = 380) were divided into subgroups based on the location of their most advanced adenoma: proximal, distal, or "equivalent both sides." Eight biomarkers in the most advanced adenomas were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (Ki-67, COX-2, TGFβRII, EGFR, β-catenin, cyclin D1, c-Myc) or TUNEL (apoptosis). After an adjustment for pathological features, there were no significant differences between proximal and distal adenomas for any biomarker. Conversely, expression levels did vary by other features, such as their size, villous component, and synchronousness. Large adenomas had higher expression levels of Ki-67(P < 0.001), TGFβRII (P < 0.0001), c-Myc (P < 0.001), and cyclin D1 (P < 0.001) in comparison to small adenomas, and tubulovillous/villous adenomas also were more likely to have similar higher expression levels in comparison to tubular adenomas. Adenoma location is not a major determinant of the expression of these biomarkers outside of other pathological features. This study suggests similarly important roles of Wnt/β-catenin and TGF-β pathways in carcinogenesis in both the proximal and distal colorectum. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
0 Communities
1 Members
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MeSH Terms
Wnt/Wingless Pathway Activation Is Promoted by a Critical Threshold of Axin Maintained by the Tumor Suppressor APC and the ADP-Ribose Polymerase Tankyrase.
Wang Z, Tacchelly-Benites O, Yang E, Thorne CA, Nojima H, Lee E, Ahmed Y
(2016) Genetics 203: 269-81
MeSH Terms: Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein, Animals, Axin Protein, Drosophila, Genotype, Mitosis, Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs, Protein Stability, Tankyrases, Wnt Proteins, Wnt Signaling Pathway, Xenopus
Show Abstract · Added February 13, 2017
Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction directs metazoan development and is deregulated in numerous human congenital disorders and cancers. In the absence of Wnt stimulation, a multiprotein "destruction complex," assembled by the scaffold protein Axin, targets the key transcriptional activator β-catenin for proteolysis. Axin is maintained at very low levels that limit destruction complex activity, a property that is currently being exploited in the development of novel therapeutics for Wnt-driven cancers. Here, we use an in vivo approach in Drosophila to determine how tightly basal Axin levels must be controlled for Wnt/Wingless pathway activation, and how Axin stability is regulated. We find that for nearly all Wingless-driven developmental processes, a three- to fourfold increase in Axin is insufficient to inhibit signaling, setting a lower-limit for the threshold level of Axin in the majority of in vivo contexts. Further, we find that both the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and the ADP-ribose polymerase Tankyrase (Tnks) have evolutionarily conserved roles in maintaining basal Axin levels below this in vivo threshold, and we define separable domains in Axin that are important for APC- or Tnks-dependent destabilization. Together, these findings reveal that both APC and Tnks maintain basal Axin levels below a critical in vivo threshold to promote robust pathway activation following Wnt stimulation.
Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.
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12 MeSH Terms