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Active coping is an adaptive stress response that improves outcomes in medical and neuropsychiatric diseases. To date, most research into coping style has focused on neurotransmitter activity and little is known about the intrinsic excitability of neurons in the associated brain regions that facilitate coping. Previous studies have shown that HCN channels regulate neuronal excitability in pyramidal cells and that HCN channel current (I ) in the CA1 area increases with chronic mild stress. Reduction of I in the CA1 area leads to antidepressant-like behavior, and this region has been implicated in the regulation of coping style. We hypothesized that the antidepressant-like behavior achieved with CA1 knockdown of I is accompanied by increases in active coping. In this report, we found that global loss of TRIP8b, a necessary subunit for proper HCN channel localization in pyramidal cells, led to active coping behavior in numerous assays specific to coping style. We next employed a viral strategy using a dominant negative TRIP8b isoform to alter coping behavior by reducing HCN channel expression. This approach led to a robust reduction in I in CA1 pyramidal neurons and an increase in active coping. Together, these results establish that changes in HCN channel function in CA1 influences coping style.
© 2018 International Society for Neurochemistry.
BACKGROUND - Experiences in early life lay the foundation for later development and functioning. Severe psychosocial deprivation, as experienced by children in early institutional care, constitutes an adverse experience with long-term negative consequences. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project sought to examine the effects of foster care as an alternative to institutional care for abandoned infants in Romanian institutions.
METHODS - At a mean age of 22 months, institutionalized children were randomized to foster care or care as usual. At age 12 years, we followed-up with 98 of these children (50 randomized to foster care), as well as assessed 49 never institutionalized comparison children. Adaptive functioning was assessed across seven domains-mental health, physical health, substance use, risk-taking behavior, family relations, peer relations, and academic performance. Children at or above the threshold for adaptive functioning in at least six of seven domains were classified as having overall adaptive functioning in early adolescence.
RESULTS - Among all children who had experienced severe early deprivation, 40% exhibited adaptive functioning. Children randomized to foster care were significantly more likely to exhibit adaptive functioning at age 12 years than children in the care as usual condition (56% vs. 23%). In support of external validity, children who met the threshold for adaptive functioning at age 12 years had higher IQs and were more physiologically responsive to stress. Among children randomized to foster care, children placed prior to age 20 months were more likely to meet the threshold for adaptive functioning than those placed after this age (79% vs. 46%).
CONCLUSIONS - This study provides causal evidence that placing children into families following severe deprivation increases the likelihood of adaptive functioning in early adolescence.
© 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
In this meta-analytic and narrative review, we examine several overarching issues related to the study of coping, emotion regulation, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms of psychopathology in childhood and adolescence, including the conceptualization and measurement of these constructs. We report a quantitative meta-analysis of 212 studies (N = 80,850 participants) that measured the associations between coping and emotion regulation with symptoms of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Within the meta-analysis we address the association of broad domains of coping and emotion regulation (e.g., total coping, emotion regulation), intermediate factors of coping and emotion regulation (e.g., primary control coping, secondary control coping), and specific coping and emotion regulation strategies (e.g., emotional expression, cognitive reappraisal) with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. For cross-sectional studies, which made up the majority of studies included, we examine 3 potential moderators: age, measure quality, and single versus multiple informants. Finally, we separately consider findings from longitudinal studies as these provide stronger tests of the effects. After accounting for publication bias, findings indicate that the broad domain of emotion regulation and adaptive coping and the factors of primary control coping and secondary control coping are related to lower levels of symptoms of psychopathology. Further, the domain of maladaptive coping, the factor of disengagement coping, and the strategies of emotional suppression, avoidance, and denial are related to higher levels of symptoms of psychopathology. Finally, we offer a critique of the current state of the field and outline an agenda for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record
(c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Institutional caregiving is associated with significant deviations from species-expected caregiving, altering the normative sequence of attachment formation and placing children at risk for long-term emotional difficulties. However, little is known about factors that can promote resilience following early institutional caregiving. In the current study, we investigated how adaptations in affective processing (i.e., positive valence bias) and family-level protective factors (i.e., secure parent-child relationships) moderate risk for internalizing symptoms in previously institutionalized (PI) youth. Children and adolescents with and without a history of institutional care performed a laboratory-based affective processing task and self-reported measures of parent-child relationship security. PI youth were more likely than comparison youth to show positive valence biases when interpreting ambiguous facial expressions. Both positive valence bias and parent-child relationship security moderated the association between institutional care and parent-reported internalizing symptoms, such that greater positive valence bias and more secure parent-child relationships predicted fewer symptoms in PI youth. However, when both factors were tested concurrently, parent-child relationship security more strongly moderated the link between PI status and internalizing symptoms. These findings suggest that both individual-level adaptations in affective processing and family-level factors of secure parent-child relationships may ameliorate risk for internalizing psychopathology following early institutional caregiving.
Preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid deposition in the absence of overt clinical impairment. There is substantial heterogeneity in the long-term clinical outcomes among amyloid positive individuals, yet limited work has focused on identifying molecular factors driving resilience from amyloid-related cognitive impairment. We apply a recently developed predicted gene expression analysis (PrediXcan) to identify genes that modify the association between baseline amyloid deposition and longitudinal cognitive changes. Participants free of clinical AD (n = 631) were selected from the AD Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) who had a baseline positron emission tomography measure of amyloid deposition (quantified as a standard uptake value ratio), longitudinal neuropsychological data, and genetic data. PrediXcan was used to impute gene expression levels across 15 heart and brain tissues. Mixed effect regression models assessed the interaction between predicted gene expression levels and amyloid deposition on longitudinal cognitive outcomes. The predicted gene expression levels for two genes in the coronary artery (CNTLN, PROK1) and two genes in the atrial appendage (PRSS50, PROK1) interacted with amyloid deposition on episodic memory performance. The predicted gene expression levels for two additional genes (TMC4 in the basal ganglia and HMBS in the aorta) interacted with amyloid deposition on executive function performance. Post-hoc analyses provide additional validation of the HMBS and PROK1 effects across two independent subsets of ADNI using two additional metrics of amyloid deposition. These results highlight a subset of unique candidate genes of resilience and provide evidence that cell-cycle regulation, angiogenesis, and heme biosynthesis likely play a role in AD progression.
BACKGROUND - Adolescents with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk for deteriorating glycemic control, poor quality of life, and depressive symptoms. Stress and coping are related to these outcomes in adolescents with diabetes, yet few studies have examined these constructs longitudinally.
PURPOSE - This study aimed to describe stress and coping in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to examine coping strategies as predictors of adolescent adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms, quality of life) and glycemic control.
METHODS - Adolescents with type 1 diabetes completed measures of diabetes-related stress, coping, symptoms of depression, and quality of life at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Data on glycemic control were collected from the adolescents' medical charts.
RESULTS - The adolescents' use of primary control coping (e.g., problem solving) and secondary control engagement coping (e.g., positive thinking) strategies predicted significantly fewer problems with quality of life and fewer depressive symptoms over time. In contrast, the use of disengagement coping strategies (e.g., avoidance) predicted more problems with quality of life and depressive symptoms. Coping was not a significant predictor of glycemic control. Coping mediated the effects of diabetes-related stress on depressive symptoms and quality of life.
CONCLUSIONS - The ways in which adolescents with type 1 diabetes cope with diabetes-related stress predict quality of life and symptoms of depression but not glycemic control. Through the use of screening to identify adolescent's diabetes-related stress and targeted interventions to improve coping strategies, there is potential to improve outcomes.
Although numerous studies suggest that religious involvement is associated with a wide range of favorable health outcomes, it is unclear whether this general pattern extends to cellular aging. In this paper, we tested whether leukocyte telomere length varies according to several dimensions of religious involvement. We used cross-sectional data from the Nashville Stress and Health Study (2011-2014), a large probability sample of 1252 black and white adults aged 22 to 69 living in Davidson County, TN, USA. Leukocyte telomere length was measured using the monochrome multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction method with albumin as the single-copy reference sequence. Dimensions of religious involvement included religiosity, religious support, and religious coping. Our multivariate analyses showed that religiosity (an index of religious attendance, prayer frequency, and religious identity) was positively associated with leukocyte telomere length, even with adjustments for religious support, religious coping, age, gender, race, education, employment status, income, financial strain, stressful life events, marital status, family support, friend support, depressive symptoms, smoking, heavy drinking, and allostatic load. Unlike religiosity, religious support and religious coping were unrelated to leukocyte telomere length across models. Depressive symptoms, smoking, heavy drinking, and allostatic load failed to explain any of the association between religiosity and telomere length. To our knowledge, this is the first population-based study to link religious involvement and cellular aging. Although our data suggest that adults who frequently attend religious services, pray with regularity, and consider themselves to be religious tend to exhibit longer telomeres than those who attend and pray less frequently and do not consider themselves to be religious, additional research is needed to establish the mechanisms underlying this association.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Low income has been established as a risk factor for poorer outcomes in youth with type 1 diabetes; however, the effect of moderate income has not been studied. The purpose of this secondary analysis of baseline data from a multi-site study was to compare glycemic control, self-management, and psychosocial outcomes [depression, stress, and quality of life (QOL)] at different income levels in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Youth (n = 320, mean age = 12.3 + 1.1, 55% female, 64% white, mean A1C = 8.3 ± 1.4) completed established self-management and psychosocial measures. A1C levels were collected from medical records. Caregivers reported annual family income, categorized as high (>$80K), moderate ($40-80K), or low (<$40K). Youth from high-income families had significantly lower A1C (mean = 7.9 ± 1.2) than those from the moderate-income group (8.6 ± 1.7, p < 0.001) or the low-income group (mean A1C = 8.6 ± 1.5, p = 0.003). Youth from the high-income group reported significantly better diabetes problem solving and more self-management goals than those from the moderate- or low-income groups (both p < 0.01). Youth from the high-income group also reported significantly fewer symptoms of depression, lower levels of perceived stress, and better QOL than those in the moderate or low-income groups (all p < 0.05). Multivariate linear regression models were used to test psychological and behavioral predictors of A1C and QOL. Parents' education status (p < 0.05) and self-management activities (p < 0.01) were significant predictors of hemoglobin A1c, while income (p < 0.01) and self-management activities (p < 0.05) were significant predictors of QOL.
© 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Two cohorts of intellectually talented 13-year-olds were identified in the 1970s (1972-1974 and 1976-1978) as being in the top 1% of mathematical reasoning ability (1,037 males, 613 females). About four decades later, data on their careers, accomplishments, psychological well-being, families, and life preferences and priorities were collected. Their accomplishments far exceeded base-rate expectations: Across the two cohorts, 4.1% had earned tenure at a major research university, 2.3% were top executives at "name brand" or Fortune 500 companies, and 2.4% were attorneys at major firms or organizations; participants had published 85 books and 7,572 refereed articles, secured 681 patents, and amassed $358 million in grants. For both males and females, mathematical precocity early in life predicts later creative contributions and leadership in critical occupational roles. On average, males had incomes much greater than their spouses', whereas females had incomes slightly lower than their spouses'. Salient sex differences that paralleled the differential career outcomes of the male and female participants were found in lifestyle preferences and priorities and in time allocation.
© The Author(s) 2014.
Trusting relationships among patients, physicians, and the health care system is important in encouraging self-care behaviors in cardiovascular patients. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of health care system and physician distrust in this population, compare the 2 forms of distrust, and describe the demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial predictors of high distrust. A total of 1,232 hospitalized adults with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure were enrolled in a prospective, observational study assessing health care system distrust and physician distrust. High health care system distrust (35%) was observed across the population, with lower levels of interpersonal physician distrust (16%). In a multivariate analysis, poor social support and coping skills were strong predictors of both health care system (p=.026, p=.003) and physician distrust (p<.001, p=.006). Individuals with low or marginal health literacy had a higher likelihood of physician distrust (p<.001), but no relation was found between health literacy and health care system distrust. In conclusion, distrust is common among acutely ill cardiac patients. Those with low social support and low coping skills are more distrusting of physicians and the health care system.