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Diabetic gastroparesis (GP) is a clinical syndrome characterized by delayed gastric emptying (DGE). Loss of Nrf2 (Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2) led to reduced nNOSα mediated gastric motility and DGE. The molecular signaling of cinnamaldehyde (CNM) mediated Nrf2 activation and its mechanistic role on DGE were further investigated in obese/T2D female mice. Adult female homozygous Nfe2l2 (C57BL/6J) and their wild-type (WT) littermates (Nfe2l2) mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD; Obese/T2D model), or normal diet (ND) with or without CNM (50 mg/kg b.w; i.p). Supplementation of CNM attenuated (p < 0.05) DGE in WT female but not in Nrf2 KO Obese/T2D mice. CNM (1) normalized serum estradiol-17β levels, (2) induced gastric Nrf2 and phase II antioxidant enzymes through extracellular signal-regulated kinase, (ERK)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), (3) reduced glucose synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and this was associated with (4) increased estrogen receptor expression, BH (Cofactor of nNOS) biosynthesis enzyme GCH-1 and nNOSα dimerization in WT Obese/T2 diabetic female mice. In addition, CNM restored impaired nitrergic relaxation in hyperglycemic conditions. These findings emphasize the importance of Nrf2 in maintaining nNOSα mediated GE and may have a translational relevance to treat obese/diabetic gastroparesis in women.
Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Inc.
The structurally related exocyclic guanine adducts α-hydroxypropano-dG (α-OH-PdG), γ-hydroxypropano-dG (γ-OH-PdG), and M1dG are formed when DNA is exposed to the reactive aldehydes acrolein and malondialdehyde (MDA). These lesions are believed to form the basis for the observed cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of acrolein and MDA. In an effort to understand the enzymatic pathways and chemical mechanisms that are involved in the repair of acrolein- and MDA-induced DNA damage, we investigated the ability of the DNA repair enzyme AlkB, an α-ketoglutarate/Fe(II) dependent dioxygenase, to process α-OH-PdG, γ-OH-PdG, and M1dG in both single- and double-stranded DNA contexts. By monitoring the repair reactions using quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometry, it was established that AlkB can oxidatively dealkylate γ-OH-PdG most efficiently, followed by M1dG and α-OH-PdG. The AlkB repair mechanism involved multiple intermediates and complex, overlapping repair pathways. For example, the three exocyclic guanine adducts were shown to be in equilibrium with open-ring aldehydic forms, which were trapped using (pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) or NaBH4. AlkB repaired the trapped open-ring form of γ-OH-PdG but not the trapped open-ring of α-OH-PdG. Taken together, this study provides a detailed mechanism by which three-carbon bridge exocyclic guanine adducts can be processed by AlkB and suggests an important role for the AlkB family of dioxygenases in protecting against the deleterious biological consequences of acrolein and MDA.
Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) studies increasingly focus on endogenous small molecular weight metabolites and consequently bring special analytical challenges. Since analytical tissue blanks do not exist for endogenous metabolites, careful consideration must be given to confirm molecular identity. Here, we present approaches for the improvement in detection of endogenous amine metabolites such as amino acids and neurotransmitters in tissues through chemical derivatization and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) IMS. Chemical derivatization with 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamaldehyde (CA) was used to improve sensitivity and specificity. CA was applied to the tissue via MALDI sample targets precoated with a mixture of derivatization reagent and ferulic acid as a MALDI matrix. Spatial distributions of chemically derivatized endogenous metabolites in tissue were determined by high-mass resolution and MS(n) IMS. We highlight an analytical strategy for metabolite validation whereby tissue extracts are analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-MS/MS to unambiguously identify metabolites and distinguish them from isobaric compounds.
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Human DNA polymerase kappa (pol κ) is a translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerase that catalyzes TLS past various minor groove lesions including N(2)-dG linked acrolein- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-derived adducts, as well as N(2)-dG DNA-DNA interstrand cross-links introduced by the chemotherapeutic agent mitomycin C. It also processes ultraviolet light-induced DNA lesions. Since pol κ TLS activity can reduce the cellular toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents and since gliomas overexpress pol κ, small molecule library screens targeting pol κ were conducted to initiate the first step in the development of new adjunct cancer therapeutics. A high-throughput, fluorescence-based DNA strand displacement assay was utilized to screen ∼16,000 bioactive compounds, and the 60 top hits were validated by primer extension assays using non-damaged DNAs. Candesartan cilexetil, manoalide, and MK-886 were selected as proof-of-principle compounds and further characterized for their specificity toward pol κ by primer extension assays using DNAs containing a site-specific acrolein-derived, ring-opened reduced form of γ-HOPdG. Furthermore, candesartan cilexetil could enhance ultraviolet light-induced cytotoxicity in xeroderma pigmentosum variant cells, suggesting its inhibitory effect against intracellular pol κ. In summary, this investigation represents the first high-throughput screening designed to identify inhibitors of pol κ, with the characterization of biochemical and biologically relevant endpoints as a consequence of pol κ inhibition. These approaches lay the foundation for the future discovery of compounds that can be applied to combination chemotherapy.
Isoniazid (INH) is an important component of front-line anti-tuberculosis therapy with good serum pharmacokinetics but unknown ability to penetrate tuberculous lesions. However, endogenous background interferences hinder our ability to directly analyze INH in tissues. Chemical derivatization has been successfully used to measure isoniazid directly from tissue samples using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). MALDI targets were pretreated with trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA) prior to mounting tissue slices. Isoniazid present in the tissues was efficiently derivatized and the INH-CA product measured by MS/MS. Precoating of MALDI targets allows the tissues to be directly thaw-mounted and derivatized, thus simplifying the preparation. A time-course series of tissues from tuberculosis infected/INH dosed animals were assayed and the MALDI MS/MS response correlates well with the amount of INH determined to be in the tissues by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-MS/MS.
The γ-hydroxy-1,N(2)-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine adduct (γ-OH-PdG) was introduced into 5'-d(GCTAGCXAGTCC)-3'·5'-d(GGACTCGCTAGC)-3' (X = γ-OH-PdG). In the presence of excess peptide KWKK, (13)C isotope-edited NMR revealed the formation of two spectroscopically distinct DNA-KWKK conjugates. These involved the reaction of the KWKK N-terminal amino group with the N(2)-dG propylaldehyde tautomer of the γ-OH-PdG lesion. The guanine N1 base imino resonance at the site of conjugation was observed in isotope-edited (15)N NMR experiments, suggesting that the conjugated guanine was inserted into the duplex and that the guanine imino proton was protected from exchange with water. The conjugates could be reduced in the presence of NaCNBH(3), suggesting that they existed, in part, as imine (Schiff base) linkages. However, (13)C isotope-edited NMR failed to detect the imine linkages, suggesting that these KWKK conjugates existed predominantly as diastereomeric carbinolamines, in equilibrium with trace amounts of the imines. The structures of the diastereomeric DNA-KWKK conjugates were predicted from potential energy minimization of model structures derived from the refined structure of the fully reduced cross-link [ Huang, H., Kozekov, I. D., Kozekova, A., Rizzo, C. J., McCullough, A., Lloyd, R. S., and Stone, M. P. ( 2010 ) Biochemistry , 49 , 6155 -6164 ]. Molecular dynamics calculations carried out in explicit solvent suggested that the conjugate bearing the S-carbinolamine linkage was the major species due to its potential for intramolecular hydrogen bonding. These carbinolamine DNA-KWKK conjugates thermally stabilized duplex DNA. However, the DNA-KWKK conjugates were chemically reversible and dissociated when the DNA was denatured. In this 5'-CpX-3' sequence, the DNA-KWKK conjugates slowly converted to interstrand N(2)-dG:N(2)-dG DNA cross-links and ring-opened γ-OH-PdG derivatives over a period of weeks.
© 2011 American Chemical Society
Acrolein (AC) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) are endogenous bis-electrophiles that arise from the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. AC is also found in high concentrations in cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust. These reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehyde (enal) covalently modify nucleic acids, to form exocyclic adducts, where the three-carbon hydroxypropano unit bridges the N1 and N(2) positions of deoxyguanosine (dG). The bifunctional nature of these enals allows them to undergo reaction with a second nucleophilic group and form DNA cross-links. These cross-linked enal adducts are likely to contribute to the genotoxic effects of both AC and HNE. We have developed a sensitive mass spectrometric method to detect cross-linked adducts of these enals in calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) treated with AC or HNE. The AC and HNE cross-linked adducts were measured by the stable isotope dilution method, employing a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer and consecutive reaction monitoring at the MS(3) or MS(4) scan stage. The lower limit of quantification of the cross-linked adducts is ∼1 adduct per 10(8) DNA bases, when 50 μg of DNA is assayed. The cross-linked adducts occur at levels that are ∼1-2% of the levels of the monomeric 1,N(2)-dG adducts in CT DNA treated with either enal.
DNA-protein conjugates are potentially repaired via proteolytic digestion to DNA-peptide conjugates. The latter have been modeled with the amino-terminal lysine of the peptide KWKK conjugated via a trimethylene linkage to the N(2)-dG amine positioned in 5'-d(GCTAGCXAGTCC)-3'.5'-d(GGACTCGCTAGC)-3' (X = N(2)-dG-trimethylene link-KWKK). This linkage is a surrogate for the reversible linkage formed by the gamma-OH-1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine (gamma-OH-PdG) adduct. This conjugated KWKK stabilizes the DNA. Amino acids K(26), W(27), K(28), and K(29) are in the minor groove. The W(27) indolyl group does not intercalate into the DNA. The G(7) N(2) amine and the K(26) N-terminal amine nitrogens are in the trans configuration with respect to the C(alpha) or C(gamma) of the trimethylene tether, respectively. The structure of this DNA-KWKK conjugate is discussed in the context of its biological processing.
The alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes (enals) acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and trans-4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) are products of endogenous lipid peroxidation, arising as a consequence of oxidative stress. The addition of enals to dG involves Michael addition of the N(2)-amine to give N(2)-(3-oxopropyl)-dG adducts, followed by reversible cyclization of N1 with the aldehyde, yielding 1,N(2)-dG exocyclic products. The 1,N(2)-dG exocyclic adducts from acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and 4-HNE exist in human and rodent DNA. The enal-induced 1,N(2)-dG lesions are repaired by the nucleotide excision repair pathway in both Escherichia coli and mammalian cells. Oligodeoxynucleotides containing structurally defined 1,N(2)-dG adducts of acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and 4-HNE were synthesized via a postsynthetic modification strategy. Site-specific mutagenesis of enal adducts has been carried out in E. coli and various mammalian cells. In all cases, the predominant mutations observed are G-->T transversions, but these adducts are not strongly miscoding. When placed into duplex DNA opposite dC, the 1,N(2)-dG exocyclic lesions undergo ring opening to the corresponding N(2)-(3-oxopropyl)-dG derivatives. Significantly, this places a reactive aldehyde in the minor groove of DNA, and the adducted base possesses a modestly perturbed Watson-Crick face. Replication bypass studies in vitro indicate that DNA synthesis past the ring-opened lesions can be catalyzed by pol eta, pol iota, and pol kappa. It also can be accomplished by a combination of Rev1 and pol zeta acting sequentially. However, efficient nucleotide insertion opposite the 1,N(2)-dG ring-closed adducts can be carried out only by pol iota and Rev1, two DNA polymerases that do not rely on the Watson-Crick pairing to recognize the template base. The N(2)-(3-oxopropyl)-dG adducts can undergo further chemistry, forming interstrand DNA cross-links in the 5'-CpG-3' sequence, intrastrand DNA cross-links, or DNA-protein conjugates. NMR and mass spectrometric analyses indicate that the DNA interstand cross-links contain a mixture of carbinolamine and Schiff base, with the carbinolamine forms of the linkages predominating in duplex DNA. The reduced derivatives of the enal-mediated N(2)-dG:N(2)-dG interstrand cross-links can be processed in mammalian cells by a mechanism not requiring homologous recombination. Mutations are rarely generated during processing of these cross-links. In contrast, the reduced acrolein-mediated N(2)-dG peptide conjugates can be more mutagenic than the corresponding monoadduct. DNA polymerases of the DinB family, pol IV in E. coli and pol kappa in human, are implicated in error-free bypass of model acrolein-mediated N(2)-dG secondary adducts, the interstrand cross-links, and the peptide conjugates.
DNA-protein cross-links (adducts) are formed in cellular DNA under a variety of conditions, particularly following exposure to an alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde, acrolein. DNA-protein cross-links are subject to repair or damage-tolerance processes. These adducts serve as substrates for proteolytic degradation, yielding DNA-peptide lesions that have been shown to be actively repaired by the nucleotide excision repair complex. Alternatively, DNA-peptide cross-links can be subjected to replication bypass. We present new evidence about the capabilities of DNA polymerases to synthesize DNA past such cross-links. DNAs were constructed with site-specific cross-links, in which either a tetrapeptide or a dodecylpeptide was covalently attached at the N (2) position of guanine via an acrolein adduct, and replication bypass assays were carried out with members of the DinB family of polymerases, human polymerase (pol) kappa, Escherichia coli pol IV, and various E. coli polymerases that do not belong to the DinB family. Pol kappa was able to catalyze both the incorporation and the extension steps with an efficiency that was qualitatively indistinguishable from control (undamaged) substrates. Fidelity was comparable on all of these substrates, suggesting that pol kappa would have a role in the low mutation frequency associated with replication of these adducts in mammalian cells. When the E. coli orthologue of pol kappa, damage-inducible DNA polymerase, pol IV, was analyzed on the same substrates, pause sites were detected opposite and three nucleotides beyond the site of the lesion, with incorporation opposite the lesion being accurate. In contrast, neither E. coli replicative polymerase, pol III, nor E. coli damage-inducible polymerases, pol II and pol V, could efficiently incorporate a nucleotide opposite the DNA-peptide cross-links. Consistent with a role for pol IV in tolerance of these lesions, the replication efficiency of DNAs containing DNA-peptide cross-links was greatly reduced in pol IV-deficient cells. Collectively, these data indicate an important role for the DinB family of polymerases in tolerance mechanisms of N (2)-guanine-linked DNA-peptide cross-links.