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Pharmacological closure of the patent ductus arteriosus: when treatment still makes sense.
Gillam-Krakauer M, Hagadorn JI, Reese J
(2019) J Perinatol 39: 1439-1441
MeSH Terms: Acetaminophen, Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors, Decision Making, Ductus Arteriosus, Patent, Humans, Indomethacin, Infant, Infant, Low Birth Weight, Infant, Newborn, Infant, Premature
Added July 28, 2020
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Mechanistic identification of biofluid metabolite changes as markers of acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity in rats.
Pannala VR, Vinnakota KC, Rawls KD, Estes SK, O'Brien TP, Printz RL, Papin JA, Reifman J, Shiota M, Young JD, Wallqvist A
(2019) Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 372: 19-32
MeSH Terms: Acetaminophen, Animals, Biomarkers, Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Disease Models, Animal, Early Diagnosis, Liver, Male, Metabolomics, Predictive Value of Tests, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, Time Factors
Show Abstract · Added March 5, 2020
Acetaminophen (APAP) is the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic drug in the world. Yet, it poses a major risk of liver injury when taken in excess of the therapeutic dose. Current clinical markers do not detect the early onset of liver injury associated with excess APAP-information that is vital to reverse injury progression through available therapeutic interventions. Hence, several studies have used transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics technologies, both independently and in combination, in an attempt to discover potential early markers of liver injury. However, the casual relationship between these observations and their relation to the APAP mechanism of liver toxicity are not clearly understood. Here, we used Sprague-Dawley rats orally gavaged with a single dose of 2 g/kg of APAP to collect tissue samples from the liver and kidney for transcriptomic analysis and plasma and urine samples for metabolomic analysis. We developed and used a multi-tissue, metabolism-based modeling approach to integrate these data, characterize the effect of excess APAP levels on liver metabolism, and identify a panel of plasma and urine metabolites that are associated with APAP-induced liver toxicity. Our analyses, which indicated that pathways involved in nucleotide-, lipid-, and amino acid-related metabolism in the liver were most strongly affected within 10 h following APAP treatment, identified a list of potential metabolites in these pathways that could serve as plausible markers of APAP-induced liver injury. Our approach identifies toxicant-induced changes in endogenous metabolism, is applicable to other toxicants based on transcriptomic data, and provides a mechanistic framework for interpreting metabolite alterations.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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12 MeSH Terms
PDA-TOLERATE Trial: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Trial of Treatment of Moderate-to-Large Patent Ductus Arteriosus at 1 Week of Age.
Clyman RI, Liebowitz M, Kaempf J, Erdeve O, Bulbul A, Håkansson S, Lindqvist J, Farooqi A, Katheria A, Sauberan J, Singh J, Nelson K, Wickremasinghe A, Dong L, Hassinger DC, Aucott SW, Hayashi M, Heuchan AM, Carey WA, Derrick M, Fernandez E, Sankar M, Leone T, Perez J, Serize A, PDA-TOLERATE (PDA: TO LEave it alone or Respond And Treat Early) Trial Investigators
(2019) J Pediatr 205: 41-48.e6
MeSH Terms: Acetaminophen, Conservative Treatment, Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors, Ductus Arteriosus, Patent, Female, Gestational Age, Humans, Ibuprofen, Indomethacin, Infant, Extremely Premature, Infant, Newborn, Male, Prospective Studies, Single-Blind Method, Treatment Outcome
Show Abstract · Added March 23, 2019
OBJECTIVE - To compare early routine pharmacologic treatment of moderate-to-large patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) at the end of week 1 with a conservative approach that requires prespecified respiratory and hemodynamic criteria before treatment can be given.
STUDY DESIGN - A total of 202 neonates of <28 weeks of gestation age (mean, 25.8 ± 1.1 weeks) with moderate-to-large PDA shunts were enrolled between age 6 and 14 days (mean, 8.1 ± 2.2 days) into an exploratory randomized controlled trial.
RESULTS - At enrollment, 49% of the patients were intubated and 48% required nasal ventilation or continuous positive airway pressure. There were no differences between the groups in either our primary outcome of ligation or presence of a PDA at discharge (early routine treatment [ERT], 32%; conservative treatment [CT], 39%) or any of our prespecified secondary outcomes of necrotizing enterocolitis (ERT, 16%; CT, 19%), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (ERT, 49%; CT, 53%), BPD/death (ERT, 58%; CT, 57%), death (ERT,19%; CT, 10%), and weekly need for respiratory support. Fewer infants in the ERT group met the rescue criteria (ERT, 31%; CT, 62%). In secondary exploratory analyses, infants receiving ERT had significantly less need for inotropic support (ERT, 13%; CT, 25%). However, among infants who were ≥26 weeks gestational age, those receiving ERT took significantly longer to achieve enteral feeding of 120 mL/kg/day (median: ERT, 14 days [range, 4.5-19 days]; CT, 6 days [range, 3-14 days]), and had significantly higher incidences of late-onset non-coagulase-negative Staphylococcus bacteremia (ERT, 24%; CT,6%) and death (ERT, 16%; CT, 2%).
CONCLUSIONS - In preterm infants age <28 weeks with moderate-to-large PDAs who were receiving respiratory support after the first week, ERT did not reduce PDA ligations or the presence of a PDA at discharge and did not improve any of the prespecified secondary outcomes, but delayed full feeding and was associated with higher rates of late-onset sepsis and death in infants born at ≥26 weeks of gestation.
TRIAL REGISTRATION - ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01958320.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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16 MeSH Terms
Metabolic network-based predictions of toxicant-induced metabolite changes in the laboratory rat.
Pannala VR, Wall ML, Estes SK, Trenary I, O'Brien TP, Printz RL, Vinnakota KC, Reifman J, Shiota M, Young JD, Wallqvist A
(2018) Sci Rep 8: 11678
MeSH Terms: Acetaminophen, Animals, Animals, Laboratory, Gene Expression Regulation, Glycogenolysis, Liver, Male, Metabolic Flux Analysis, Metabolic Networks and Pathways, Metabolome, Pyruvates, Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Show Abstract · Added March 28, 2019
In order to provide timely treatment for organ damage initiated by therapeutic drugs or exposure to environmental toxicants, we first need to identify markers that provide an early diagnosis of potential adverse effects before permanent damage occurs. Specifically, the liver, as a primary organ prone to toxicants-induced injuries, lacks diagnostic markers that are specific and sensitive to the early onset of injury. Here, to identify plasma metabolites as markers of early toxicant-induced injury, we used a constraint-based modeling approach with a genome-scale network reconstruction of rat liver metabolism to incorporate perturbations of gene expression induced by acetaminophen, a known hepatotoxicant. A comparison of the model results against the global metabolic profiling data revealed that our approach satisfactorily predicted altered plasma metabolite levels as early as 5 h after exposure to 2 g/kg of acetaminophen, and that 10 h after treatment the predictions significantly improved when we integrated measured central carbon fluxes. Our approach is solely driven by gene expression and physiological boundary conditions, and does not rely on any toxicant-specific model component. As such, it provides a mechanistic model that serves as a first step in identifying a list of putative plasma metabolites that could change due to toxicant-induced perturbations.
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Association Between Early Postoperative Acetaminophen Exposure and Acute Kidney Injury in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.
Van Driest SL, Jooste EH, Shi Y, Choi L, Darghosian L, Hill KD, Smith AH, Kannankeril PJ, Roden DM, Ware LB
(2018) JAMA Pediatr 172: 655-663
MeSH Terms: Acetaminophen, Acute Kidney Injury, Antioxidants, Cardiac Surgical Procedures, Child, Preschool, Creatinine, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Drug Administration Schedule, Female, Humans, Infant, Male, Postoperative Care, Postoperative Complications, Postoperative Period, Retrospective Studies, Treatment Outcome
Show Abstract · Added March 24, 2020
Importance - Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication for pediatric cardiac surgery patients associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and length of stay. Current strategies focus on risk reduction and early identification because there are no known preventive or therapeutic agents. Cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass lyse erythrocytes, releasing free hemoglobin and contributing to oxidative injury. Acetaminophen may prevent AKI by reducing the oxidation state of free hemoglobin.
Objective - To test the hypothesis that early postoperative acetaminophen exposure is associated with reduced risk of AKI in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
Design, Setting, and Participants - In this retrospective cohort study, the setting was 2 tertiary referral children's hospitals. The primary and validation cohorts included children older than 28 days admitted for cardiac surgery between July 1, 2008, and June 1, 2016. Exclusion criteria were postoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and inadequate serum creatinine measurements to determine AKI status.
Exposures - Acetaminophen exposure in the first 48 postoperative hours.
Main Outcomes and Measures - Acute kidney injury based on Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes serum creatinine criteria (increase by ≥0.3 mg/dL from baseline or at least 1.5-fold more than the baseline [to convert to micromoles per liter, multiply by 88.4]) in the first postoperative week.
Results - The primary cohort (n = 666) had a median age of 6.5 (interquartile range [IQR], 3.9-44.7) months, and 341 (51.2%) had AKI. In unadjusted analyses, those with AKI had lower median acetaminophen doses than those without AKI (47 [IQR, 16-88] vs 78 [IQR, 43-104] mg/kg, P < .001). In logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, cardiopulmonary bypass time, red blood cell distribution width, postoperative hypotension, nephrotoxin exposure, and Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery score, acetaminophen exposure was protective against postoperative AKI (odds ratio, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.82-0.90] per each additional 10 mg/kg). Findings were replicated in the validation cohort (n = 333), who had a median age of 14.1 (IQR, 3.9-158.2) months, and 162 (48.6%) had AKI. Acetaminophen doses were 60 (95% CI, 40-87) mg/kg in those with AKI vs 70 (95% CI, 45-94) mg/kg in those without AKI (P = .03), with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.91 (95% CI, 0.84-0.99) for each additional 10 mg/kg.
Conclusions and Relevance - These results indicate that early postoperative acetaminophen exposure may be associated with a lower rate of AKI in pediatric patients who undergo cardiac surgery. Further analysis to validate these findings, potentially through a prospective, randomized trial, may establish acetaminophen as a preventive agent for AKI.
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Genetics of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and pharmacogenetics of PDA treatment.
Lewis TR, Shelton EL, Van Driest SL, Kannankeril PJ, Reese J
(2018) Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 23: 232-238
MeSH Terms: Acetaminophen, Animals, Disease Models, Animal, Ductus Arteriosus, Patent, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Humans, Ibuprofen, Indomethacin, Infant, Newborn, Infant, Premature, Pharmacogenetics
Show Abstract · Added March 31, 2018
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a frequent, complex, and difficult to treat clinical syndrome among preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. In addition to known clinical risk factors, there are emerging data about genetic predisposition to PDA in both animal and human models. Clinical response and toxicity from drugs used to treat PDA are highly variable. Developmental and genetic aspects of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics influence exposure and response to pharmacologic therapies. Given the variable efficacy and toxicity of known drug therapies, novel therapeutic targets for PDA treatment offer the promise of precision medicine. This review addresses the known genetic contributions to prolonged ductal patency, variability in response to drug therapy for PDA, and potential novel drug targets for future PDA treatment discovery.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Cell-free hemoglobin promotes primary graft dysfunction through oxidative lung endothelial injury.
Shaver CM, Wickersham N, McNeil JB, Nagata H, Miller A, Landstreet SR, Kuck JL, Diamond JM, Lederer DJ, Kawut SM, Palmer SM, Wille KM, Weinacker A, Lama VN, Crespo MM, Orens JB, Shah PD, Hage CA, Cantu E, Porteous MK, Dhillon G, McDyer J, Bastarache JA, Christie JD, Ware LB, Lung Transplant Outcomes Group (LTOG)
(2018) JCI Insight 3:
MeSH Terms: Acetaminophen, Allografts, Capillary Permeability, Case-Control Studies, Cell Line, Endothelial Cells, Female, Hemoglobins, Humans, Hyperoxia, Lung, Lung Transplantation, Male, Microvessels, Middle Aged, Oxidative Stress, Primary Graft Dysfunction
Show Abstract · Added May 31, 2018
Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is acute lung injury within 72 hours of lung transplantation. We hypothesized that cell-free hemoglobin (CFH) contributes to PGD by increasing lung microvascular permeability and tested this in patients, ex vivo human lungs, and cultured human lung microvascular endothelial cells. In a nested case control study of 40 patients with severe PGD at 72 hours and 80 matched controls without PGD, elevated preoperative CFH was independently associated with increased PGD risk (odds ratio [OR] 2.75, 95%CI, 1.23-6.16, P = 0.014). The effect of CFH on PGD was magnified by reperfusion fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ≥ 0.40 (OR 3.41, P = 0.031). Isolated perfused human lungs exposed to intravascular CFH (100 mg/dl) developed increased vascular permeability as measured by lung weight (CFH 14.4% vs. control 0.65%, P = 0.047) and extravasation of Evans blue-labeled albumin dye (EBD) into the airspace (P = 0.027). CFH (1 mg/dl) also increased paracellular permeability of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell monolayers (hPMVECs). Hyperoxia (FiO2 = 0.95) increased human lung and hPMVEC permeability compared with normoxia (FiO2 = 0.21). Treatment with acetaminophen (15 μg/ml), a specific hemoprotein reductant, prevented CFH-dependent permeability in human lungs (P = 0.046) and hPMVECs (P = 0.037). In summary, CFH may mediate PGD through oxidative effects on microvascular permeability, which are augmented by hyperoxia and abrogated by acetaminophen.
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Cell-Free Hemoglobin-mediated Increases in Vascular Permeability. A Novel Mechanism of Primary Graft Dysfunction and a New Therapeutic Target.
Shaver CM, Wickersham N, McNeil JB, Nagata H, Sills G, Kuck JL, Janz DR, Bastarache JA, Ware LB
(2017) Ann Am Thorac Soc 14: S251-S252
MeSH Terms: Acetaminophen, Capillary Permeability, Endothelial Cells, Hemoglobins, Humans, Lung, Lung Transplantation, Primary Graft Dysfunction
Show Abstract · Added May 31, 2018
RATIONALE - Cell-free hemoglobin (CFH) is a potent oxidant associated with poor clinical outcomes in a variety of clinical settings. Recent studies suggest that acetaminophen (APAP), a specific hemoprotein reductant, can abrogate CFH-mediated oxidative injury and organ dysfunction. Preoperative plasma CFH levels are independently associated with primary graft dysfunction (PGD) after lung transplant ( 1 ).
OBJECTIVES - Our objectives were to determine whether CFH would increase lung vascular permeability in the isolated perfused human lung and whether APAP would limit these effects.
METHODS - Human lungs declined for transplant were inflated and perfused with Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium/5% albumin at a pulmonary artery pressure of 8-12 mm Hg. After steady state was achieved, CFH (100 mg/dl) was added to the perfusate ± APAP (15 μg/ml). Lung permeability was measured by continuous monitoring of lung weight gain and by extravasation of Evans blue dye-labeled albumin from the vasculature into bronchoalveolar lavage. To test the mechanism of increased permeability, human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were exposed to CFH (0.5 mg/ml) ± APAP (160 μM) for 24 hours and permeability was assessed by electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing.
MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS - In the isolated perfused human lung, CFH increased lung permeability over 2 hours compared with control lungs (12% vs. 2% weight gain from baseline, P = 0.03). Increased vascular permeability was confirmed by a 4.8-fold increase in Evans blue dye-labeled albumin in the airspace compared with control lungs. Pretreatment with APAP prevented lung weight gain (P = 0.06 vs. CFH). In human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells, CFH increased monolayer permeability (P = 0.03 vs. control), and this was attenuated by APAP (P = 0.045 vs. CFH).
CONCLUSIONS - Circulating CFH increases vascular permeability in the isolated perfused human lung and paracellular permeability in lung microvascular endothelial cells. These effects may explain the association of plasma CFH levels with PGD. The hemoprotein reductant APAP attenuates the effects of CFH and merits further exploration as a potential therapy for PGD prevention.
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Use of common analgesic medications and ovarian cancer survival: results from a pooled analysis in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.
Dixon SC, Nagle CM, Wentzensen N, Trabert B, Beeghly-Fadiel A, Schildkraut JM, Moysich KB, deFazio A, Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group, Risch HA, Rossing MA, Doherty JA, Wicklund KG, Goodman MT, Modugno F, Ness RB, Edwards RP, Jensen A, Kjær SK, Høgdall E, Berchuck A, Cramer DW, Terry KL, Poole EM, Bandera EV, Paddock LE, Anton-Culver H, Ziogas A, Menon U, Gayther SA, Ramus SJ, Gentry-Maharaj A, Pearce CL, Wu AH, Pike MC, Webb PM
(2017) Br J Cancer 116: 1223-1228
MeSH Terms: Acetaminophen, Adult, Aged, Analgesics, Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal, Anticarcinogenic Agents, Aspirin, Disease-Free Survival, Female, Humans, Middle Aged, Ovarian Neoplasms, Proportional Hazards Models, Risk Factors
Show Abstract · Added April 18, 2017
BACKGROUND - Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with improved survival in some cancers, but evidence for ovarian cancer is limited.
METHODS - Pooling individual-level data from 12 Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium studies, we evaluated the association between self-reported, pre-diagnosis use of common analgesics and overall/progression-free/disease-specific survival among 7694 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (4273 deaths).
RESULTS - Regular analgesic use (at least once per week) was not associated with overall survival (pooled hazard ratios, pHRs (95% confidence intervals): aspirin 0.96 (0.88-1.04); non-aspirin NSAIDs 0.97 (0.89-1.05); acetaminophen 1.01 (0.93-1.10)), nor with progression-free/disease-specific survival. There was however a survival advantage for users of any NSAIDs in studies clearly defining non-use as less than once per week (pHR=0.89 (0.82-0.98)).
CONCLUSIONS - Although this study did not show a clear association between analgesic use and ovarian cancer survival, further investigation with clearer definitions of use and information about post-diagnosis use is warranted.
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14 MeSH Terms
High prevalence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use among acute kidney injury survivors in the southern community cohort study.
Lipworth L, Abdel-Kader K, Morse J, Stewart TG, Kabagambe EK, Parr SK, Birdwell KA, Matheny ME, Hung AM, Blot WJ, Ikizler TA, Siew ED
(2016) BMC Nephrol 17: 189
MeSH Terms: Acetaminophen, Acute Kidney Injury, Analgesics, Non-Narcotic, Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal, Arthritis, Comorbidity, Diabetes Mellitus, Female, Heart Failure, Humans, Hypertension, Male, Middle Aged, Prevalence, Prospective Studies, Renal Insufficiency, Chronic, Southeastern United States, Survivors
Show Abstract · Added January 2, 2017
BACKGROUND - Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used and have been linked to acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Patients who survive an AKI episode are at risk for future adverse kidney and cardiovascular outcomes. The objective of our study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of NSAID use among AKI survivors.
METHODS - The Southern Community Cohort Study is a prospective study of low-income adults aged 40-79 in the southeastern US. Through linkage with Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 826 participants with an AKI diagnosis (ICD-9 584.5-584.9) at any age prior to cohort enrollment were identified. At baseline, data were collected on regular use of prescription and over-the-counter NSAIDs, as well as demographic, medical and other characteristics. Additional comorbidities were ascertained via linkage with CMS or the US Renal Data System.
RESULTS - One hundred fifty-four AKI survivors (19%) reported regular NSAID use at cohort enrollment (52 prescription, 81 OTC, 21 both) and the percentage of NSAID users did not vary by time since AKI event. Over 58% of users were taking NSAIDS regularly both before and after their AKI event. Hypertension (83%), arthritis (71%), heart failure (44%), CKD (36%) and diabetes (35%) were prevalent among NSAID users. In a multivariable model, history of arthritis (OR: 3.00; 95% CI: 1.92, 4.68) and acetaminophen use (OR: 2.43; 95% CI: 1.50, 3.93) were significantly associated with NSAID use, while prevalent CKD (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.98) and diabetes (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.69) were significantly inversely associated.
CONCLUSIONS - NSAID use among AKI survivors is common and highlights the need to understand physician and patient decision-making around NSAIDs and to develop effective strategies to reduce NSAID use in this vulnerable population.
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18 MeSH Terms