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Outcome of TGFβ1 signaling is context dependent and differs between individuals due to germ-line genetic variation. To explore innate genetic variants that determine differential outcome of reduced TGFβ1 signaling, we dissected the modifier locus Tgfbm3, on mouse chromosome 12. On a NIH/OlaHsd genetic background, the Tgfbm3b(C57) haplotype suppresses prenatal lethality of Tgfb1(-/-) embryos and enhances nuclear accumulation of mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2 (Smad2) in embryonic cells. Amino acid polymorphisms within a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (Adam17) can account, at least in part, for this Tgfbm3b effect. ADAM17 is known to down-regulate Smad2 signaling by shedding the extracellular domain of TGFβRI, and we show that the C57 variant is hypomorphic for down-regulation of Smad2/3-driven transcription. Genetic variation at Tgfbm3 or pharmacological inhibition of ADAM17, modulates postnatal circulating endothelial progenitor cell (CEPC) numbers via effects on TGFβRI activity. Because CEPC numbers correlate with angiogenic potential, this suggests that variant Adam17 is an innate modifier of adult angiogenesis, acting through TGFβR1. To determine whether human ADAM17 is also polymorphic and interacts with TGFβ signaling in human vascular disease, we investigated hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), which is caused by mutations in TGFβ/bone morphogenetic protein receptor genes, ENG, encoding endoglin (HHT1), or ACVRL1 encoding ALK1 (HHT2), and considered a disease of excessive abnormal angiogenesis. HHT manifests highly variable incidence and severity of clinical features, ranging from small mucocutaneous telangiectases to life-threatening visceral and cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We show that ADAM17 SNPs associate with the presence of pulmonary AVM in HHT1 but not HHT2, indicating genetic variation in ADAM17 can potentiate a TGFβ-regulated vascular disease.
Secondary bile acids (BA) such as deoxycholic acid (DCA) promote the development of several gastrointestinal malignancies, but how they mediate this effect is unclear. In this study, we offer evidence of a mechanism involving ectodomain shedding of the EGFR ligands amphiregulin (AREG) and TGF-α, which rely upon the cell surface protease TACE/ADAM-17. Specifically, we show that AREG participates in DCA-induced EGFR and STAT3 signaling, cell-cycle progression, and tumorigenicity in human colorectal cancer and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). TACE and AREG, but not TGF-α, were overexpressed in both colorectal cancer and PDAC tissues compared with normal tissues. Exposure of colorectal cancer and PDAC cells to DCA resulted in colocalization of Src and TACE to the cell membrane, resulting in AREG-dependent activation of EGFR, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and STAT3 signaling. Src or TACE inhibition was sufficient to attenuate DCA-induced AREG, but not TGF-α shedding. We also examined a role for the BA transporter TGR5 in DCA-mediated EGFR and STAT3 signaling. RNA interference-mediated silencing of TGR5 or AREG inhibited DCA-induced EGFR, MAPK, and STAT3 signaling, blunted cyclin D1 expression and cell-cycle progression, and attenuated DCA-induced colorectal cancer or PDAC tumorigenicity. Together, our findings define an AREG-dependent signaling pathway that mediates the oncogenic effects of secondary BAs in gastrointestinal cancers, the targeting of which may enhance therapeutic responses in their treatment.
The dissemination of prostate cancer to bone is a common, incurable aspect of advanced disease. Prevention and treatment of this terminal phase of prostate cancer requires improved molecular understanding of the process as well as markers indicative of molecular progression. Through biochemical analyses and loss-of-function in vivo studies, we demonstrate that the cell adhesion molecule, activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), is actively shed from metastatic prostate cancer cells by the sheddase ADAM17 in response to TGF-β. Not only is this posttranslational modification of ALCAM a marker of prostate cancer progression, the molecule is also required for effective metastasis to bone. Biochemical analysis of prostate cancer cell lines reveals that ALCAM expression and shedding is elevated in response to TGF-β signaling. Both in vitro and in vivo shedding is mediated by ADAM17. Longitudinal analysis of circulating ALCAM in tumor-bearing mice revealed that shedding of tumor, but not host-derived ALCAM is elevated during growth of the cancer. Gene-specific knockdown of ALCAM in bone-metastatic PC3 cells greatly diminished both skeletal dissemination and tumor growth in bone. The reduced growth of ALCAM knockdown cells corresponded to an increase in apoptosis (caspase-3) and decreased proliferation (Ki67). Together, these data demonstrate that the ALCAM is both a functional regulator as well as marker of prostate cancer progression.
p40, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)-derived soluble protein, ameliorates intestinal injury and colitis, reduces apoptosis, and preserves barrier function by transactivation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) in intestinal epithelial cells. The aim of this study is to determine the mechanisms by which p40 transactivates the EGFR in intestinal epithelial cells. Here we show that p40-conditioned medium activates EGFR in young adult mouse colon epithelial cells and human colonic epithelial cell line, T84 cells. p40 up-regulates a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17) catalytic activity, and broad spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitors block EGFR transactivation by p40 in these two cell lines. In ADAM17-deficient mouse colonic epithelial (ADAM17(-/-) MCE) cells, p40 transactivation of EGFR is blocked, but can be rescued by re-expression with WT ADAM17. Furthermore, p40 stimulates release of heparin binding (HB)-EGF, but not transforming growth factor (TGF)α or amphiregulin, in young adult mouse colon cells and ADAM17(-/-) MCE cells overexpressing WT ADAM17. Knockdown of HB-EGF expression by siRNA suppresses p40 effects on transactivating EGFR and Akt, preventing apoptosis, and preserving tight junction function. The effects of p40 on HB-EGF release and ADAM17 activation in vivo are examined after administration of p40-containing pectin/zein hydrogel beads to mice. p40 stimulates ADAM17 activity and EGFR activation in colonic epithelial cells and increases HB-EGF levels in blood from WT mice, but not from mice with intestinal epithelial cell-specific ADAM17 deletion. Thus, these data define a mechanism of a probiotic-derived soluble protein in modulating intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis through ADAM17-mediated HB-EGF release, leading to transactivation of EGFR.
Initiation of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is definitively linked to activating mutations in the KRAS oncogene. However, PDA mouse models show that mutant Kras expression early in development gives rise to a normal pancreas, with tumors forming only after a long latency or pancreatitis induction. Here, we show that oncogenic KRAS upregulates endogenous EGFR expression and activation, the latter being dependent on the EGFR ligand sheddase, ADAM17. Genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of EGFR or ADAM17 effectively eliminates KRAS-driven tumorigenesis in vivo. Without EGFR activity, active RAS levels are not sufficient to induce robust MEK/ERK activity, a requirement for epithelial transformation.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Disruption of intestinal epithelial homeostasis, including enhanced apoptosis, is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We have recently shown that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) increases the kinase activity of ErbB4, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family that is elevated in mucosa of IBD patients and that promotes colon epithelial cell survival. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that TNF transactivates ErbB4 through TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE)-mediated ligand release and that this transactivation is necessary to protect colonic epithelial cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis. Using neutralizing antibodies, we show that heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is required for ErbB4 phosphorylation in response to TNF. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of the metalloprotease TACE, which mediates HB-EGF release from cells, blocked TNF-induced ErbB4 activation. MEK, but not Src or p38, was also required for transactivation. TACE activity and ligand binding were required for ErbB4-mediated antiapoptotic signaling; whereas mouse colon epithelial cells expressing ErbB4 were resistant to TNF-induced apoptosis, TACE inhibition or blockade of ErbB4 ligand binding reversed the survival advantage. We conclude that TNF transactivates ErbB4 through TACE-dependent HB-EGF release, thus protecting colon epithelial cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis. These findings have important implications for understanding how ErbB4 protects the colon from apoptosis-induced tissue injury in inflammatory conditions such as IBD.
During the development of the sympathetic nervous system, the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) has a dual function: promoting survival together with TrkA in response to NGF, but inducing cell death upon binding pro or mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Apoptotic signaling through p75NTR requires activation of the stress kinase, JNK. However, the receptor also undergoes regulated proteolysis, first by a metalloprotease, and then by gamma-secretase, in response to pro-apoptotic ligands and this is necessary for receptor mediated neuronal death (Kenchappa, R. S., Zampieri, N., Chao, M. V., Barker, P. A., Teng, H. K., Hempstead, B. L., and Carter, B. D. (2006) Neuron 50, 219-232). Hence, the relationship between JNK activation and receptor proteolysis remains to be defined. Here, we report that JNK3 activation is necessary for p75NTR cleavage; however, following release of the intracellular domain, there is a secondary activation of JNK3 that is cleavage dependent. Receptor proteolysis and apoptosis were prevented in sympathetic neurons from jnk3(-/-) mice, while activation of JNK by ectopic expression of MEKK1 induced p75NTR cleavage and cell death. Proteolysis of the receptor was not detected until 6 h after BDNF treatment, suggesting that JNK3 promotes cleavage through a transcriptional mechanism. In support of this hypothesis, BDNF up-regulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme (TACE)/ADAM17 mRNA and protein in wild-type, but not jnk3(-/-) sympathetic neurons. Down-regulation of TACE by RNA interference blocked BDNF-induced p75NTR cleavage and apoptosis, indicating that this metalloprotease is responsible for the initial processing of the receptor. Together, these results demonstrate that p75NTR-mediated activation of JNK3 is required for up-regulation of TACE, which promotes receptor proteolysis, leading to prolonged activation of JNK3 and subsequent apoptosis in sympathetic neurons.
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation by GPCRs regulates many important biological processes. ADAM metalloprotease activity has been implicated as a key step in transactivation, yet the regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we investigate the regulation of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) shedding by reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the ATP-dependent activation of the P2Y family of GPCRs. We report that ATP stimulates TGF-alpha proteolysis with concomitant EGFR activation and that this process requires TACE/ADAM17 activity in both murine fibroblasts and CHO cells. ATP-induced TGF-alpha shedding required calcium and was independent of Src family kinases and PKC and MAPK signaling. Moreover, ATP-induced TGF-alpha shedding was completely inhibited by scavengers of ROS, whereas calcium-stimulated shedding was partially inhibited by ROS scavenging. Hydrogen peroxide restored TGF-alpha shedding after calcium chelation. Importantly, we also found that ATP-induced shedding was independent of the cytoplasmic NADPH oxidase complex. Instead, mitochondrial ROS production increased in response to ATP and mitochondrial oxidative complex activity was required to activate TACE-dependent shedding. These results reveal an essential role for mitochondrial ROS in regulating GPCR-induced growth factor shedding.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS - The disintegrin and metalloproteinase ADAM17, also known as tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme, is expressed in adipocytes. Importantly, elevated levels of ADAM17 expression have been linked to obesity and insulin resistance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of six ADAM17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (m1254A>G, i14121C>A, i33708A>G, i48827A>C, i53440C>T, and i62781G>T) with insulin-resistance phenotypes and obesity risk, and their potential interactions with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA).
METHODS AND RESULTS - ADAM17 SNPs were genotyped in 936 subjects (448 men/488 women) who participated in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study. Anthropometrical and biochemical measurements were determined by standard procedures. PUFA intake was estimated using a validated questionnaire. G allele carriers at the ADAM17_m1254A>G polymorphism exhibited significantly higher risk of obesity (P=0.003), were shorter (P=0.017), had higher insulin (P=0.016), and lower HDL-C concentrations (P=0.027) than AA subjects. For the ADAM17_i33708A>G SNP, homozygotes for the A allele displayed higher risk of obesity (P=0.001), were heavier (P=0.011), had higher BMI (P=0.005), and higher waist measurements (P=0.023) than GG subjects. A significant gene-diet interaction was found (P=0.030), in which the deleterious association of the i33708A allele with obesity was observed in subjects with low intakes from (n-6) PUFA (P<0.001), whereas no differences in obesity risk were seen among subjects with high (n-6) PUFA intake (P>0.5)
CONCLUSION - These findings support that ADAM17 (m1254A>G and i33708A>G) SNPs may contribute to obesity risk. For the ADAM17_i33708A>G SNP, this risk may be further modulated by (n-6) PUFA intake.
Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND & AIMS - Helicobacter pylori infection disrupts the balance between gastric epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis, which is likely to lower the threshold for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma. H pylori infection is associated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) activation through metalloproteinase-dependent release of EGFR ligands in gastric epithelial cells. Because EGFR signaling regulates cell survival, we investigated whether activation of EGFR following H pylori infection promotes gastric epithelial survival.
METHODS - Mouse conditionally immortalized stomach epithelial cells (ImSt) and a human gastric epithelial cell line, AGS cells, as well as wild-type and kinase-defective EGFR (EGFRwa2) mice, were infected with the H pylori cag+ strain 7.13. Apoptosis, caspase activity, EGFR activation (phosphorylation), and EGFR downstream targets were analyzed.
RESULTS - Inhibiting EGFR kinase activity or decreasing EGFR expression significantly increased H pylori-induced apoptosis in ImSt. Blocking H pylori-induced EGFR activation with a heparin-binding (HB)-EGF neutralizing antibody or abrogating a disintegrin and matrix metalloproteinase-17 (ADAM-17) expression increased apoptosis of H pylori-infected AGS and ImSt, respectively. Conversely, pretreatment of ImSt with HB-EGF completely blocked H pylori-induced apoptosis. H pylori infection stimulated gastric epithelial cell apoptosis in EGFRwa2 but not in wild-type mice. Furthermore, H pylori-induced EGFR phosphorylation stimulated phosphotidylinositol-3'-kinase-dependent activation of the antiapoptotic factor Akt, increased expression of the antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2, and decreased expression of the proapoptotic factor Bax.
CONCLUSIONS - EGFR activation by H pylori infection has an antiapoptotic effect in gastric epithelial cells that appears to involve Akt signaling and Bcl family members. These findings provide important insights into the mechanisms of H pylori-associated tumorigenesis.