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B Cell-Intrinsic mTORC1 Promotes Germinal Center-Defining Transcription Factor Gene Expression, Somatic Hypermutation, and Memory B Cell Generation in Humoral Immunity.
Raybuck AL, Cho SH, Li J, Rogers MC, Lee K, Williams CL, Shlomchik M, Thomas JW, Chen J, Williams JV, Boothby MR
(2018) J Immunol :
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2018
B lymphocytes migrate among varied microenvironmental niches during diversification, selection, and conversion to memory or Ab-secreting plasma cells. Aspects of the nutrient milieu differ within these lymphoid microenvironments and can influence signaling molecules such as the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). However, much remains to be elucidated as to the B cell-intrinsic functions of nutrient-sensing signal transducers that modulate B cell differentiation or Ab affinity. We now show that the amino acid-sensing mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) is vital for induction of Bcl6-a key transcriptional regulator of the germinal center (GC) fate-in activated B lymphocytes. Accordingly, disruption of mTORC1 after B cell development and activation led to reduced populations of Ag-specific memory B cells as well as plasma cells and GC B cells. In addition, induction of the germ line transcript that guides activation-induced deaminase in selection of the IgG1 H chain region during class switching required mTORC1. Expression of the somatic mutator activation-induced deaminase was reduced by a lack of mTORC1 in B cells, whereas point mutation frequencies in Ag-specific GC-phenotype B cells were only halved. These effects culminated in a B cell-intrinsic defect that impacted an antiviral Ab response and drastically impaired generation of high-affinity IgG1. Collectively, these data establish that mTORC1 governs critical B cell-intrinsic mechanisms essential for establishment of GC differentiation and effective Ab production.
Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
0 Communities
1 Members
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0 MeSH Terms
In Utero Exposure to Histological Chorioamnionitis Primes the Exometabolomic Profiles of Preterm CD4T Lymphocytes.
Matta P, Sherrod SD, Marasco CC, Moore DJ, McLean JA, Weitkamp JH
(2017) J Immunol 199: 3074-3085
MeSH Terms: Biomarkers, Chorioamnionitis, Enterotoxins, Female, Humans, Infant, Newborn, Infant, Premature, Male, Pregnancy, Th1 Cells
Show Abstract · Added September 28, 2017
Histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) is an intrauterine inflammatory condition that increases the risk for preterm birth, death, and disability because of persistent systemic and localized inflammation. The immunological mechanisms sustaining this response in the preterm newborn remain unclear. We sought to determine the consequences of HCA exposure on the fetal CD4T lymphocyte exometabolome. We cultured naive CD4T lymphocytes from HCA-positive and -negative preterm infants matched for gestational age, sex, race, prenatal steroid exposure, and delivery mode. We collected conditioned media samples before and after a 6-h in vitro activation of naive CD4T lymphocytes with soluble staphylococcal enterotoxin B and anti-CD28. We analyzed samples by ultraperformance liquid chromatography ion mobility-mass spectrometry. We determined the impact of HCA on the CD4T lymphocyte exometabolome and identified potential biomarker metabolites by multivariate statistical analyses. We discovered that: 1) CD4T lymphocytes exposed to HCA exhibit divergent exometabolomic profiles in both naive and activated states; 2) ∼30% of detected metabolites differentially expressed in response to activation were unique to HCA-positive CD4T lymphocytes; 3) metabolic pathways associated with glutathione detoxification and tryptophan degradation were altered in HCA-positive CD4T lymphocytes; and 4) flow cytometry and cytokine analyses suggested a bias toward a T1-biased immune response in HCA-positive samples. HCA exposure primes the neonatal adaptive immune processes by inducing changes to the exometabolomic profile of fetal CD4T lymphocytes. These exometabolomic changes may link HCA exposure to T1 polarization of the neonatal adaptive immune response.
Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
0 Communities
1 Members
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10 MeSH Terms
The Cytokine Response to Lipopolysaccharide Does Not Predict the Host Response to Infection.
Fensterheim BA, Guo Y, Sherwood ER, Bohannon JK
(2017) J Immunol 198: 3264-3273
MeSH Terms: Animals, Cytokines, Disease Models, Animal, Flow Cytometry, Ligands, Lipid A, Lipopolysaccharides, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Poly I-C, Pseudomonas Infections, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Toll-Like Receptors
Show Abstract · Added April 10, 2017
The magnitude of the LPS-elicited cytokine response is commonly used to assess immune function in critically ill patients. A suppressed response, known as endotoxin tolerance, is associated with worse outcomes, yet endotoxin tolerance-inducing TLR4 ligands are known to protect animals from infection. Thus, it remains unknown whether the magnitude of the LPS-elicited cytokine response provides an accurate assessment of antimicrobial immunity. To address this, the ability of diverse TLR ligands to modify the LPS-elicited cytokine response and resistance to infection were assessed. Priming of mice with LPS, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), or poly(I:C) significantly reduced plasma LPS-elicited proinflammatory cytokines, reflecting endotoxin tolerance, whereas CpG-ODN-primed mice showed augmented cytokine production. In contrast, LPS, MPLA, and CpG-ODN, but not poly(I:C), improved the host response to ainfection. Mice primed with protective TLR ligands, including CpG-ODN, showed reduced plasma cytokines duringinfection. The protection imparted by TLR ligands persisted for up to 15 d yet was independent of the adaptive immune system. In bone marrow-derived macrophages, protective TLR ligands induced a persistent metabolic phenotype characterized by elevated glycolysis and oxidative metabolism as well as augmented size, granularity, phagocytosis, and respiratory burst. Sustained augmentation of glycolysis in TLR-primed cells was dependent, in part, on hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α and was essential for increased phagocytosis. In conclusion, the magnitude of LPS-elicited cytokine production is not indicative of antimicrobial immunity after exposure to TLR ligands. Additionally, protective TLR ligands induce sustained augmentation of phagocyte metabolism and antimicrobial function.
Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
0 Communities
2 Members
0 Resources
15 MeSH Terms
The Molecular Basis for the Lack of Inflammatory Responses in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells and Their Differentiated Cells.
D'Angelo W, Gurung C, Acharya D, Chen B, Ortolano N, Gama V, Bai F, Guo YL
(2017) J Immunol 198: 2147-2155
MeSH Terms: Animals, Cell Differentiation, Chikungunya Fever, Chikungunya virus, Embryonic Stem Cells, Immunity, Inflammation, Interferons, Lipopolysaccharides, Mice, Mice, Inbred DBA, NF-kappa B, RAW 264.7 Cells, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, Virus Diseases
Show Abstract · Added July 10, 2017
We reported previously that mouse embryonic stem cells do not have a functional IFN-based antiviral mechanism. The current study extends our investigation to the inflammatory response in mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse embryonic stem cell-differentiated cells. We demonstrate that LPS, TNF-α, and viral infection, all of which induce robust inflammatory responses in naturally differentiated cells, failed to activate NF-κB, the key transcription factor that mediates inflammatory responses, and were unable to induce the expression of inflammatory genes in mouse embryonic stem cells. Similar results were obtained in human embryonic stem cells. In addition to the inactive state of NF-κB, the deficiency in the inflammatory response in mouse embryonic stem cells is also attributed to the lack of functional receptors for LPS and TNF-α. In vitro differentiation can trigger the development of the inflammatory response mechanism, as indicated by the transition of NF-κB from its inactive to active state. However, a limited response to TNF-α and viral infection, but not to LPS, was observed in mouse embryonic stem cell-differentiated fibroblasts. We conclude that the inflammatory response mechanism is not active in mouse embryonic stem cells, and in vitro differentiation promotes only partial development of this mechanism. Together with our previous studies, the findings described in this article demonstrate that embryonic stem cells are fundamentally different from differentiated somatic cells in their innate immunity, which may have important implications in developmental biology, immunology, and embryonic stem cell-based regenerative medicine.
Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
15 MeSH Terms
IL-15 Enables Septic Shock by Maintaining NK Cell Integrity and Function.
Guo Y, Luan L, Patil NK, Wang J, Bohannon JK, Rabacal W, Fensterheim BA, Hernandez A, Sherwood ER
(2017) J Immunol 198: 1320-1333
MeSH Terms: Animals, Female, Interferon-gamma, Interleukin-15, Killer Cells, Natural, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Shock, Septic
Show Abstract · Added May 10, 2017
Interleukin 15 is essential for the development and differentiation of NK and memory CD8(mCD8) T cells. Our laboratory previously showed that NK and CD8T lymphocytes facilitate the pathobiology of septic shock. However, factors that regulate NK and CD8T lymphocyte functions during sepsis are not well characterized. We hypothesized that IL-15 promotes the pathogenesis of sepsis by maintaining NK and mCD8T cell integrity. To test our hypothesis, the pathogenesis of sepsis was assessed in IL-15-deficient (IL-15 knockout, KO) mice. IL-15 KO mice showed improved survival, attenuated hypothermia, and less proinflammatory cytokine production during septic shock caused by cecal ligation and puncture or endotoxin-induced shock. Treatment with IL-15 superagonist (IL-15 SA, IL-15/IL-15Rα complex) regenerated NK and mCD8T cells and re-established mortality of IL-15 KO mice during septic shock. Preventing NK cell regeneration attenuated the restoration of mortality caused by IL-15 SA. If given immediately prior to septic challenge, IL-15-neutralizing IgG M96 failed to protect against septic shock. However, M96 caused NK cell depletion if given 4 d prior to septic challenge and conferred protection. IL-15 SA treatment amplified endotoxin shock, which was prevented by NK cell or IFN-γ depletion. IL-15 SA treatment also exacerbated septic shock caused by cecal ligation and puncture when given after the onset of sepsis. In conclusion, endogenous IL-15 does not directly augment the pathogenesis of sepsis but enables the development of septic shock by maintaining NK cell numbers and integrity. Exogenous IL-15 exacerbates the severity of sepsis by activating NK cells and facilitating IFN-γ production.
Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
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1 Members
0 Resources
10 MeSH Terms
Fluorescence-based measurement of cystine uptake through xCT shows requirement for ROS detoxification in activated lymphocytes.
Siska PJ, Kim B, Ji X, Hoeksema MD, Massion PP, Beckermann KE, Wu J, Chi JT, Hong J, Rathmell JC
(2016) J Immunol Methods 438: 51-58
MeSH Terms: Amino Acid Transport System y+, B-Lymphocytes, Cell Line, Tumor, Cellular Reprogramming, Cystine, Flow Cytometry, Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate, Fluorescence, Fluorescent Dyes, Glutathione, Humans, Lymphocyte Activation, Microscopy, Fluorescence, Reactive Oxygen Species, Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, Signal Transduction, T-Lymphocytes, Up-Regulation
Show Abstract · Added January 29, 2018
T and B lymphocytes undergo metabolic re-programming upon activation that is essential to allow bioenergetics, cell survival, and intermediates for cell proliferation and function. To support changes in the activity of signaling pathways and to provide sufficient and necessary intracellular metabolites, uptake of extracellular nutrients increases sharply with metabolic re-programming. One result of increased metabolic activity can be reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can be toxic when accumulated in excess. Uptake of cystine allows accumulation of cysteine that is necessary for glutathione synthesis and ROS detoxification. Cystine uptake is required for T cell activation and function but measurements based on radioactive labeling do not allow analysis on single cell level. Here we show the critical role for cystine uptake in T cells using a method for measurement of cystine uptake using a novel CystineFITC probe. T cell receptor stimulation lead to upregulation of the cystine transporter xCT (SLC7a11) and increased cystine uptake in CD4+ and CD8+ human T cells. Similarly, lipopolysaccharide stimulation increased cystine uptake in human B cells. The CystineFITC probe was not toxic and could be metabolized to prevent cystine starvation induced cell death. Furthermore, blockade of xCT or competition with natural cystine decreased uptake of CystineFITC. CystineFITC is thus a versatile tool that allows measurement of cystine uptake on single cell level and shows the critical role for cystine uptake for T cell ROS regulation and activation.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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1 Members
0 Resources
18 MeSH Terms
Prostaglandin I2 Suppresses Proinflammatory Chemokine Expression, CD4 T Cell Activation, and STAT6-Independent Allergic Lung Inflammation.
Zhou W, Zhang J, Goleniewska K, Dulek DE, Toki S, Newcomb DC, Cephus JY, Collins RD, Wu P, Boothby MR, Peebles RS
(2016) J Immunol 197: 1577-86
MeSH Terms: Allergens, Animals, Antihypertensive Agents, Asthma, CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Cell Proliferation, Chemokines, Epoprostenol, Hypersensitivity, Indomethacin, Inflammation, Interleukin-13, Interleukin-5, Lung, Lymphocyte Activation, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Mice, Knockout, Ovalbumin, Receptors, Epoprostenol, STAT6 Transcription Factor, Signal Transduction, Th2 Cells
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2018
Allergic airway diseases are immune disorders associated with heightened type 2 immune responses and IL-5 and IL-13 production at the site of inflammation. We have previously reported that cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition by indomethacin augmented allergic airway inflammation in a STAT6-independent manner. However, the key COX product(s) responsible for restraining indomethacin-mediated STAT6-independent allergic inflammation is unknown. In this study, using the mouse model of OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation, we identified that PGI2 receptor (IP) signaling was critical for indomethacin-induced, STAT6-independent proallergic effects. We demonstrated that IP deficiency increased inflammatory cell infiltration, eosinophilia, and IL-5 and IL-13 expression in the lung in a STAT6-independent manner. The augmented STAT6-independent allergic inflammation correlated with enhanced primary immune responses to allergic sensitization and elevated production of multiple inflammatory chemokines (CCL11, CCL17, CCL22, and CXCL12) in the lung after allergen challenge. We also showed that the PGI2 analogue cicaprost inhibited CD4 T cell proliferation and IL-5 and IL-13 expression in vitro, and IP deficiency diminished the stimulatory effect of indomethacin on STAT6-independent IL-5 and IL-13 responses in vivo. The inhibitory effects of PGI2 and the IP signaling pathway on CD4 T cell activation, inflammatory chemokine production, and allergic sensitization and airway inflammation suggest that PGI2 and its analogue iloprost, both Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, may be useful in treating allergic diseases and asthma. In addition, inhibiting PGI2 signaling by drugs that either block PGI2 production or restrain IP signaling may augment STAT6-independent pathways of allergic inflammation.
Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
23 MeSH Terms
Determinants of VH1-46 Cross-Reactivity to Pemphigus Vulgaris Autoantigen Desmoglein 3 and Rotavirus Antigen VP6.
Cho MJ, Ellebrecht CT, Hammers CM, Mukherjee EM, Sapparapu G, Boudreaux CE, McDonald SM, Crowe JE, Payne AS
(2016) J Immunol 197: 1065-73
MeSH Terms: Antigens, Viral, Autoantigens, Capsid Proteins, Cross Reactions, Desmoglein 3, Dual-Specificity Phosphatases, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, High-Throughput Screening Assays, Humans, Microscopy, Fluorescence, Pemphigus, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Rotavirus Infections
Show Abstract · Added April 13, 2017
Shared VH1-46 gene usage has been described in B cells reacting to desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) in the autoimmune disease pemphigus vulgaris (PV), as well as B cells responding to rotavirus capsid protein VP6. In both diseases, VH1-46 B cells bearing few to no somatic mutations can recognize the disease Ag. This intriguing connection between an autoimmune response to self-antigen and an immune response to foreign Ag prompted us to investigate whether VH1-46 B cells may be predisposed to Dsg3-VP6 cross-reactivity. Focused testing of VH1-46 mAbs previously isolated from PV and rotavirus-exposed individuals indicates that cross-reactivity is rare, found in only one of seven VH1-46 IgG clonotypes. High-throughput screening of IgG B cell repertoires from two PV patients identified no additional cross-reactive clonotypes. Screening of IgM B cell repertoires from one non-PV and three PV patients identified specific cross-reactive Abs in one PV patient, but notably all six cross-reactive clonotypes used VH1-46. Site-directed mutagenesis studies indicate that amino acid residues predisposing VH1-46 Abs to Dsg3 reactivity reside in CDR2. However, somatic mutations only rarely promote Dsg3-VP6 cross-reactivity; most mutations abolish VP6 and/or Dsg3 reactivity. Nevertheless, functional testing identified two cross-reactive VH1-46 Abs that both disrupt keratinocyte adhesion and inhibit rotavirus replication, indicating the potential for VH1-46 Abs to have both pathologic autoimmune and protective immune functions. Taken together, these studies suggest that certain VH1-46 B cell populations may be predisposed to Dsg3-VP6 cross-reactivity, but multiple mechanisms prevent the onset of autoimmunity after rotavirus exposure.
Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
13 MeSH Terms
BET Inhibition Attenuates Helicobacter pylori-Induced Inflammatory Response by Suppressing Inflammatory Gene Transcription and Enhancer Activation.
Chen J, Wang Z, Hu X, Chen R, Romero-Gallo J, Peek RM, Chen LF
(2016) J Immunol 196: 4132-42
MeSH Terms: Azepines, Cell Line, Tumor, Enhancer Elements, Genetic, Gastritis, Gene Expression Regulation, Helicobacter Infections, Helicobacter pylori, Humans, Inflammation Mediators, NF-kappa B, Nuclear Proteins, Promoter Regions, Genetic, Protein Binding, RNA Polymerase II, RNA, Messenger, Transcription Factors, Triazoles
Show Abstract · Added April 6, 2017
Helicobacter pylori infection causes chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. H. pylori-initiated chronic gastritis is characterized by enhanced expression of many NF-κB-regulated inflammatory cytokines. Brd4 has emerged as an important NF-κB regulator and regulates the expression of many NF-κB-dependent inflammatory genes. In this study, we demonstrated that Brd4 was not only actively involved in H. pylori-induced inflammatory gene mRNA transcription but also H. pylori-induced inflammatory gene enhancer RNA (eRNA) synthesis. Suppression of H. pylori-induced eRNA synthesis impaired H. pylori-induced mRNA synthesis. Furthermore, H. pylori stimulated NF-κB-dependent recruitment of Brd4 to the promoters and enhancers of inflammatory genes to facilitate the RNA polymerase II-mediated eRNA and mRNA synthesis. Inhibition of Brd4 by JQ1 attenuated H. pylori-induced eRNA and mRNA synthesis for a subset of NF-κB-dependent inflammatory genes. JQ1 also inhibited H. pylori-induced interaction between Brd4 and RelA and the recruitment of Brd4 and RNA polymerase II to the promoters and enhancers of inflammatory genes. Finally, we demonstrated that JQ1 suppressed inflammatory gene expression, inflammation, and cell proliferation in H. pylori-infected mice. These studies highlight the importance of Brd4 in H. pylori-induced inflammatory gene expression and suggest that Brd4 could be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of H. pylori-triggered inflammatory diseases and cancer.
Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
17 MeSH Terms
IL-1β and Inflammasome Activity Link Inflammation to Abnormal Fetal Airway Development.
Stouch AN, McCoy AM, Greer RM, Lakhdari O, Yull FE, Blackwell TS, Hoffman HM, Prince LS
(2016) J Immunol 196: 3411-20
MeSH Terms: Animals, Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia, Carrier Proteins, Disease Models, Animal, Inflammasomes, Inflammation, Interleukin-1beta, Lipopolysaccharides, Lung, Macrophages, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, NF-kappa B, NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein, Signal Transduction
Show Abstract · Added May 4, 2017
Inflammation in the developing preterm lung leads to disrupted airway morphogenesis and chronic lung disease in human neonates. However, the molecular mechanisms linking inflammation and the pathways controlling airway morphogenesis remain unclear. In this article, we show that IL-1β released by activated fetal lung macrophages is the key inflammatory mediator that disrupts airway morphogenesis. In mouse lung explants, blocking IL-1β expression, posttranslational processing, and signaling protected the formation of new airways from the inhibitory effects ofEscherichia coliLPS. Consistent with a critical role for IL-1β, mice expressing a gain-of-functionNlrp3allele and subsequent overactive inflammasome activity displayed abnormal saccular-stage lung morphogenesis and died soon after birth. Although the early-stage fetal lung appeared capable of mounting an NF-κB-mediated immune response, airway formation became more sensitive to inflammation later in development. This period of susceptibility coincided with higher expression of multiple inflammasome components that could increase the ability to release bioactive IL-1β. Macrophages fromNlrp3gain-of-function mice also expressed higher levels of more mature cell surface markers, additionally linking inflammasome activation with macrophage maturation. These data identify developmental expression of the inflammasome and IL-1β release by fetal lung macrophages as key mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets for neonatal lung disease.
Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
1 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
16 MeSH Terms