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Clinical and Genome-wide Analysis of Cisplatin-induced Tinnitus Implicates Novel Ototoxic Mechanisms.
El Charif O, Mapes B, Trendowski MR, Wheeler HE, Wing C, Dinh PC, Frisina RD, Feldman DR, Hamilton RJ, Vaughn DJ, Fung C, Kollmannsberger C, Mushiroda T, Kubo M, Gamazon ER, Cox NJ, Huddart R, Ardeshir-Rouhani-Fard S, Monahan P, Fossa SD, Einhorn LH, Travis LB, Dolan ME
(2019) Clin Cancer Res 25: 4104-4116
Show Abstract · Added July 17, 2019
PURPOSE - Cisplatin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic, results in tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound. Our purpose was to identify the clinical and genetic determinants of tinnitus among testicular cancer survivors (TCS) following cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN - TCS ( = 762) were dichotomized to cases (moderate/severe tinnitus; = 154) and controls (none; = 608). Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations with comorbidities and SNP dosages in genome-wide association study (GWAS) following quality control and imputation (covariates: age, noise exposure, cisplatin dose, genetic principal components). Pathway over-representation tests and functional studies in mouse auditory cells were performed.
RESULTS - Cisplatin-induced tinnitus (CisIT) significantly associated with age at diagnosis ( = 0.007) and cumulative cisplatin dose ( = 0.007). CisIT prevalence was not significantly greater in 400 mg/m-treated TCS compared with 300 ( = 0.41), but doses >400 mg/m (median 580, range 402-828) increased risk by 2.61-fold ( < 0.0001). CisIT cases had worse hearing at each frequency (0.25-12 kHz, < 0.0001), and reported more vertigo (OR = 6.47; < 0.0001) and problems hearing in a crowd (OR = 8.22; < 0.0001) than controls. Cases reported poorer health ( < 0.0001) and greater psychotropic medication use (OR = 2.4; = 0.003). GWAS suggested a variant near (rs7606353, = 2 × 10) and eQTLs were significantly enriched independently of that SNP ( = 0.018). overexpression in HEI-OC1, a mouse auditory cell line, resulted in resistance to cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. Pathway analysis implicated potassium ion transport (q = 0.007).
CONCLUSIONS - CisIT associated with several neuro-otological symptoms, increased use of psychotropic medication, and poorer health. , expressed in the cochlear lateral wall, was implicated as protective. Future studies should investigate otoprotective targets in supporting cochlear cells.
©2019 American Association for Cancer Research.
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Correction: RAS/MAPK Activation Is Associated with Reduced Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Therapeutic Cooperation Between MEK and PD-1/PD-L1 Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors.
Loi S, Dushyanthen S, Beavis PA, Salgado R, Denkert C, Savas P, Combs S, Rimm DL, Giltnane JM, Estrada MV, Sánchez V, Sanders ME, Cook RS, Pilkinton MA, Mallal SA, Wang K, Miller VA, Stephens PJ, Yelensky R, Doimi FD, Gómez H, Ryzhov SV, Darcy PK, Arteaga CL, Balko JM
(2019) Clin Cancer Res 25: 1437
Added April 2, 2019
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Correction: Association of FGFR1 with ERα Maintains Ligand-Independent ER Transcription and Mediates Resistance to Estrogen Deprivation in ER Breast Cancer.
Formisano L, Stauffer KM, Young CD, Bhola NE, Guerrero-Zotano AL, Jansen VM, Estrada MM, Hutchinson KE, Giltnane JM, Schwarz LJ, Lu Y, Balko JM, Deas O, Cairo S, Judde JG, Mayer IA, Sanders M, Dugger TC, Bianco R, Stricker T, Arteaga CL
(2019) Clin Cancer Res 25: 1433
Added April 2, 2019
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Correction: Kinome-wide Functional Screen Identifies Role of PLK1 in Hormone-Independent, ER-Positive Breast Cancer.
Bhola NE, Jansen VM, Bafna S, Giltnane JM, Balko JM, Estrada MV, Meszoely I, Mayer I, Abramson V, Ye F, Sanders M, Dugger TC, Allen EV, Arteaga CL
(2019) Cancer Res 79: 876
Added April 2, 2019
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Correction: Kinome-Wide RNA Interference Screen Reveals a Role for PDK1 in Acquired Resistance to CDK4/6 Inhibition in ER-Positive Breast Cancer.
Jansen VM, Bhola NE, Bauer JA, Formisano L, Lee KM, Hutchinson KE, Witkiewicz AK, Moore PD, Estrada MV, Sánchez V, Ericsson PG, Sanders ME, Pohlmann PR, Pishvaian MJ, Riddle DA, Dugger TC, Wei W, Knudsen ES, Arteaga CL
(2019) Cancer Res 79: 874
Added April 2, 2019
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Correction: Extracellular Matrix/Integrin Signaling Promotes Resistance to Combined Inhibition of HER2 and PI3K in HER2 Breast Cancer.
Hanker AB, Estrada MV, Bianchini G, Moore PD, Zhao J, Cheng F, Koch JP, Gianni L, Tyson DR, Sánchez V, Rexer BN, Sanders ME, Zhao Z, Stricker TP, Arteaga CL
(2019) Cancer Res 79: 873
Added April 2, 2019
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Nod1 Imprints Inflammatory and Carcinogenic Responses toward the Gastric Pathogen .
Suarez G, Romero-Gallo J, Piazuelo MB, Sierra JC, Delgado AG, Washington MK, Shah SC, Wilson KT, Peek RM
(2019) Cancer Res 79: 1600-1611
Show Abstract · Added February 23, 2019
() is the strongest known risk for gastric cancer. The type IV secretion system is an oncogenic locus that translocates peptidoglycan into host cells, where it is recognized by NOD1, an innate immune receptor. Beyond this, the role of NOD1 in -induced cancer remains undefined. To address this knowledge gap, we infected two genetic models of Nod1 deficiency with the strain PMSS1: C57BL/6 mice, which rarely develop cancer, and INS-GAS FVB/N mice, which commonly develop cancer. Infected C57BL/6 and INS-GAS mice acutely developed more severe gastritis, and INS-GAS mice developed gastric dysplasia more frequently compared with mice. Because genotype status did not alter microbial phenotypes of adapted , we investigated host immunologic responses. infection of mice led to significantly increased gastric mucosal levels of Th1, Th17, and Th2 cytokines compared with Nod1 wild-type (WT) mice. To define the role of specific innate immune cells, we quantified cytokine secretion from -infected primary gastric organoids generated from WT or mice that were cocultured with or without WT or macrophages. Infection increased cytokine production from gastric epithelial cells and macrophages and elevations were significantly increased with Nod1 deficiency. Furthermore, infection altered the polarization status of macrophages compared with macrophages. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that loss of Nod1 augments inflammatory and injury responses to . Nod1 may exert its restrictive role by altering macrophage polarization, leading to immune evasion and microbial persistence. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that manipulation of NOD1 may represent a novel strategy to prevent or treat pathologic outcomes induced by infection.
©2019 American Association for Cancer Research.
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Insight into the Etiology of Undifferentiated Soft Tissue Sarcomas from a Novel Mouse Model.
Fleming JT, Brignola E, Chen L, Guo Y, Zhao S, Wang Q, Li B, Correa H, Ermilov AN, Dlugosz AA, Chiang C
(2019) Mol Cancer Res 17: 1024-1035
Show Abstract · Added April 10, 2019
Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog signaling pathway has been linked to the formation of numerous cancer types, including the myogenic soft tissue sarcoma, embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (eRMS). Here, we report , a novel mouse model in which human GLI2A, a constitutive activator of Hedgehog signaling, induced undifferentiated sarcomas that were phenotypically divergent from eRMS. Rather, sarcomas arising in mice featured some characteristics that were reminiscent of Ewing sarcoma. Even though it is widely understood that Ewing sarcoma formation is driven by gene fusions, a genetically defined mouse model is not well-established. While gene fusions were not present in sarcomas, precluding their designation as Ewing sarcoma, we did find that GLI2A induced expression of known gene targets essential to Ewing pathogenesis, most notably, . Moreover, we found that naïve mesenchymal progenitors originate tumors in mice. Altogether, our work provides a novel genetic mouse model, which directly connects oncogenic Hedgehog activity to the etiology of undifferentiated soft tissue sarcomas for the first time. IMPLICATIONS: The finding that activation of Gli2 transcription factor is sufficient to induce Ewing-like sarcomas provides a direct transformative role of the Hedgehog signaling pathway in undifferentiated soft tissue sarcoma.
©2019 American Association for Cancer Research.
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Serine Threonine Kinase 17A Maintains the Epithelial State in Colorectal Cancer Cells.
Short SP, Thompson JJ, Bilotta AJ, Chen X, Revetta FL, Washington MK, Williams CS
(2019) Mol Cancer Res 17: 882-894
Show Abstract · Added April 15, 2019
Serine threonine kinase 17A (STK17A) is a ubiquitously expressed kinase originally identified as a regulator of apoptosis; however, whether it functionally contributes to colorectal cancer has not been established. Here, we have analyzed STK17A in colorectal cancer and demonstrated decreased expression of STK17A in primary tumors, which is further reduced in metastatic lesions, indicating a potential role in regulating the metastatic cascade. Interestingly, changes in STK17A expression did not modify proliferation, apoptosis, or sensitivity of colorectal cancer cell lines to treatment with the chemotherapeutic 5-fluorouracil. Instead, knockdown induced a robust mesenchymal phenotype consistent with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, including spindle-like cell morphology, decreased expression of adherens junction proteins, and increased migration and invasion. Additionally, overexpression of decreased cell size and induced widespread membrane blebbing, a phenotype often associated with activation of cell contractility. Indeed, STK17A-overexpressing cells displayed heightened phosphorylation of myosin light chain in a manner dependent on STK17A catalytic activity. Finally, patient-derived tumor organoid cultures were used to more accurately determine STK17A's effect in primary human tumor cells. Loss of STK17A induced morphologic changes, decreased E-cadherin, increased invasion, and augmented organoid attachment on 2D substrates, all together suggesting a more metastatic phenotype. Collectively, these data indicate a novel role for STK17A in the regulation of epithelial phenotypes and indicate its functional contribution to colorectal cancer invasion and metastasis. IMPLICATIONS: Loss of serine threonine kinase 17A occurs in colorectal cancer metastasis, induces mesenchymal morphologies, and contributes to tumor cell invasion and migration in colorectal cancer.
©2019 American Association for Cancer Research.
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Is a Tumor Suppressor Gene in Colorectal Cancer.
Chen MS, Lo YH, Chen X, Williams CS, Donnelly JM, Criss ZK, Patel S, Butkus JM, Dubrulle J, Finegold MJ, Shroyer NF
(2019) Mol Cancer Res 17: 697-708
Show Abstract · Added April 15, 2019
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Growth factor-independent 1 (GFI1) is a zinc finger transcriptional repressor responsible for controlling secretory cell differentiation in the small intestine and colon. GFI1 plays a significant role in the development of human malignancies, including leukemia, lung cancer, and prostate cancer. However, the role of GFI1 in colorectal cancer progression is largely unknown. Our results demonstrate that RNA and protein expression of GFI1 are reduced in advanced-stage nonmucinous colorectal cancer. Subcutaneous tumor xenograft models demonstrated that the reexpression of GFI1 in 4 different human colorectal cancer cell lines inhibits tumor growth. To further investigate the role of Gfi1 in colorectal tumorigenesis, we developed transgenic mice harboring a deletion of Gfi1 in the colon driven by CDX2-cre (Gfi1; CDX2-cre) and crossed them with Apc mice (Apc; Gfi1; CDX2-cre). Loss of Gfi1 significantly increased the total number of colorectal adenomas compared with littermate controls with an APC mutation alone. Furthermore, we found that compound (Apc; Gfi1; CDX2-cre) mice develop larger adenomas, invasive carcinoma, as well as hyperplastic lesions expressing the neuroendocrine marker chromogranin A, a feature that has not been previously described in APC-mutant tumors in mice. Collectively, these results demonstrate that acts as a tumor suppressor gene in colorectal cancer, where deficiency of Gfi1 promotes malignancy in the colon. IMPLICATIONS: These findings reveal that GFI1 functions as a tumor suppressor gene in colorectal tumorigenesis.
©2019 American Association for Cancer Research.
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