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Background -Common diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD) are complex in etiology. The interaction of genetic susceptibility with lifestyle factors may play a prominent role. However, gene-environment interactions for CHD have been difficult to identify. Here, we investigate interaction of smoking behavior, a potent lifestyle factor, with genotypes that have been shown to associate with CHD risk. Methods -We analyzed data on 60,919 CHD cases and 80,243 controls from 29 studies for gene-smoking interactions for genetic variants at 45 loci previously reported to associate with CHD risk. We also studied 5 loci associated with smoking behavior. Study specific gene-smoking interaction effects were calculated and pooled using fixed-effects meta-analyses. Interaction analyses were declared to be significant at a P-value< 1.0x10(-3) (Bonferroni correction for 50 tests). Results -We identified novel gene-smoking interaction for a variant upstream of the ADAMTS7 gene. Every T allele of rs7178051 was associated with lower CHD risk by 12% in never-smokers (P-value: 1.3x10(-16)) compared to 5% in ever-smokers (P-value: 2.5x10(-4)) translating to a 60% loss of CHD protection conferred by this allelic variation in people who smoked tobacco (Interaction P-value: 8.7x10(-5)). The protective T allele at rs7178051 was also associated with reduced ADAMTS7 expression in human aortic endothelial cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines. Exposure of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells to cigarette smoke extract led to induction of ADAMTS7Conclusions -Allelic variation at rs7178051 that associates with reduced ADAMTS7 expression confers stronger CHD protection in "never-smokers" compared to "ever-smokers". Increased vascular ADAMTS7 expression may contribute to the loss of CHD protection in smokers.
We explored whether, the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth (PDAY) coronary and abdominal risk scores measured at 18 to 30 years of age and changes in these scores would more strongly predict coronary artery calcium (CAC) and abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) assessed 25 years later, than scores measured 25 years later.
The mechanisms of right ventricular (RV) failure in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are poorly understood. Abnormalities in fatty acid (FA) metabolism have been described in experimental models of PAH, but systemic and myocardial FA metabolism has not been studied in human PAH.
Heart failure affects ≈5.7 million people in the United States alone. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, β-blockers, and aldosterone antagonists have improved mortality in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, but mortality remains high. In July 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the first of a new class of drugs for the treatment of heart failure: Valsartan/sacubitril (formerly known as LCZ696 and currently marketed by Novartis as Entresto) combines the angiotensin receptor blocker valsartan and the neprilysin inhibitor prodrug sacubitril in a 1:1 ratio in a sodium supramolecular complex. Sacubitril is converted by esterases to LBQ657, which inhibits neprilysin, the enzyme responsible for the degradation of the natriuretic peptides and many other vasoactive peptides. Thus, this combined angiotensin receptor antagonist and neprilysin inhibitor addresses 2 of the pathophysiological mechanisms of heart failure: activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and decreased sensitivity to natriuretic peptides. In the Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF) trial, valsartan/sacubitril significantly reduced mortality and hospitalization for heart failure, as well as blood pressure, compared with enalapril in patients with heart failure, reduced ejection fraction, and an elevated circulating level of brain natriuretic peptide or N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. Ongoing clinical trials are evaluating the role of valsartan/sacubitril in the treatment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and hypertension. We review here the mechanisms of action of valsartan/sacubitril, the pharmacological properties of the drug, and its efficacy and safety in the treatment of heart failure and hypertension.
© 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Cardio-oncology (the cardiovascular care of cancer patients) has developed as a new translational and clinical field based on the expanding repertoire of mechanism-based cancer therapies. Although these therapies have changed the natural course of many cancers, several may also lead to cardiovascular complications. Many new anticancer drugs approved over the past decade are "targeted" kinase inhibitors that interfere with intracellular signaling contributing to tumor progression. Unexpected cardiovascular and cardiometabolic effects of patient treatment with these inhibitors have provided unique insights into the role of kinases in human cardiovascular biology. Today, an ever-expanding number of cancer therapies targeting novel kinases and other specific cellular and metabolic pathways are being developed and tested in oncology clinical trials. Some of these drugs may affect the cardiovascular system in detrimental ways and others perhaps in beneficial ways. We propose that the numerous ongoing oncology clinical trials are an opportunity for closer collaboration between cardiologists and oncologists to study the cardiovascular and cardiometabolic changes caused by the modulation of these pathways in patients. In this regard, cardio-oncology represents an opportunity and a novel platform for basic and translational investigation and can serve as a potential avenue for optimization of anticancer therapies and for cardiovascular research and drug discovery.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a proliferative disease of the pulmonary vasculature that preferentially affects women. Estrogens such as the metabolite 16α-hydroxyestrone (16αOHE) may contribute to PAH pathogenesis, and alterations in cellular energy metabolism associate with PAH. We hypothesized that 16αOHE promotes heritable PAH (HPAH) via microRNA-29 (miR-29) family upregulation and that antagonism of miR-29 would attenuate pulmonary hypertension in transgenic mouse models of Bmpr2 mutation.