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BACKGROUND - Common diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD) are complex in etiology. The interaction of genetic susceptibility with lifestyle factors may play a prominent role. However, gene-lifestyle interactions for CHD have been difficult to identify. Here, we investigate interaction of smoking behavior, a potent lifestyle factor, with genotypes that have been shown to associate with CHD risk.
METHODS - We analyzed data on 60 919 CHD cases and 80 243 controls from 29 studies for gene-smoking interactions for genetic variants at 45 loci previously reported to be associated with CHD risk. We also studied 5 loci associated with smoking behavior. Study-specific gene-smoking interaction effects were calculated and pooled using fixed-effects meta-analyses. Interaction analyses were declared to be significant at avalue of <1.0×10(Bonferroni correction for 50 tests).
RESULTS - We identified novel gene-smoking interaction for a variant upstream of thegene. Every T allele of rs7178051 was associated with lower CHD risk by 12% in never-smokers (=1.3×10) in comparison with 5% in ever-smokers (=2.5×10), translating to a 60% loss of CHD protection conferred by this allelic variation in people who smoked tobacco (interactionvalue=8.7×10). The protective T allele at rs7178051 was also associated with reducedexpression in human aortic endothelial cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines. Exposure of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells to cigarette smoke extract led to induction ofCONCLUSIONS: Allelic variation at rs7178051 that associates with reducedexpression confers stronger CHD protection in never-smokers than in ever-smokers. Increased vascularexpression may contribute to the loss of CHD protection in smokers.
© 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
BACKGROUND - We explored whether, the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth (PDAY) coronary and abdominal risk scores measured at 18 to 30 years of age and changes in these scores would more strongly predict coronary artery calcium (CAC) and abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) assessed 25 years later, than scores measured 25 years later.
METHODS AND RESULTS - In the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, 3008 participants had measurements of risk score components at 5-year intervals beginning at 18 to 30 years of age. CAC and AAC were assessed at 43 to 55 years of age. Odds ratios (ORs) for the presence and extent of CAC/AAC per/point higher score and c-statistics for predicting CAC/AAC were calculated. The prevalence of CAC was 28% and AAC was 53%. For each 1 point higher PDAY score, the odds of CAC were higher using baseline scores than year 25 scores (OR, 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-1.33 versus OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.11-1.14). For AAC, ORs at years 0 and 25 were similar (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.24-1.34 versus OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.19-1.26). C-statistic for CAC prediction was higher at year 0 than year 25 (0.731 versus 0.705) but similar at years 0 and 25 for AAC (0.665 versus 0.670). ORs for CAC were highest at baseline, and, for AAC, ORs were highest at year 10. Including change in PDAY scores with baseline scores improved prediction.
CONCLUSIONS - Atherosclerosis risk and change in risk assessed in young adulthood years before subclinical atherosclerosis imaging provide strong prediction of future subclinical atherosclerosis. CAC and AAC reflect chronic risk exposure in addition to risk measured at the time of study.
© 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
BACKGROUND - The mechanisms of right ventricular (RV) failure in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are poorly understood. Abnormalities in fatty acid (FA) metabolism have been described in experimental models of PAH, but systemic and myocardial FA metabolism has not been studied in human PAH.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We used human blood, RV tissue, and noninvasive imaging to characterize multiple steps in the FA metabolic pathway in PAH subjects and controls. Circulating free FAs and long-chain acylcarnitines were elevated in PAH patients versus controls. Human RV long-chain FAs were increased and long-chain acylcarnitines were markedly reduced in PAH versus controls. With the use of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, in vivo myocardial triglyceride content was elevated in human PAH versus controls (1.4±1.3% triglyceride versus 0.22±0.11% triglyceride, P=0.02). Ceramide, a mediator of lipotoxicity, was increased in PAH RVs versus controls. Using an animal model of heritable PAH, we demonstrated reduced FA oxidation via failure of palmitoylcarnitine to stimulate oxygen consumption in the PAH RV.
CONCLUSIONS - Abnormalities in FA metabolism can be detected in the blood and myocardium in human PAH and are associated with in vivo cardiac steatosis and lipotoxicity. Murine data suggest that lipotoxicity may arise from reduction in FA oxidation.
© 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Heart failure affects ≈5.7 million people in the United States alone. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, β-blockers, and aldosterone antagonists have improved mortality in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, but mortality remains high. In July 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the first of a new class of drugs for the treatment of heart failure: Valsartan/sacubitril (formerly known as LCZ696 and currently marketed by Novartis as Entresto) combines the angiotensin receptor blocker valsartan and the neprilysin inhibitor prodrug sacubitril in a 1:1 ratio in a sodium supramolecular complex. Sacubitril is converted by esterases to LBQ657, which inhibits neprilysin, the enzyme responsible for the degradation of the natriuretic peptides and many other vasoactive peptides. Thus, this combined angiotensin receptor antagonist and neprilysin inhibitor addresses 2 of the pathophysiological mechanisms of heart failure: activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and decreased sensitivity to natriuretic peptides. In the Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF) trial, valsartan/sacubitril significantly reduced mortality and hospitalization for heart failure, as well as blood pressure, compared with enalapril in patients with heart failure, reduced ejection fraction, and an elevated circulating level of brain natriuretic peptide or N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. Ongoing clinical trials are evaluating the role of valsartan/sacubitril in the treatment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and hypertension. We review here the mechanisms of action of valsartan/sacubitril, the pharmacological properties of the drug, and its efficacy and safety in the treatment of heart failure and hypertension.
© 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Cardio-oncology (the cardiovascular care of cancer patients) has developed as a new translational and clinical field based on the expanding repertoire of mechanism-based cancer therapies. Although these therapies have changed the natural course of many cancers, several may also lead to cardiovascular complications. Many new anticancer drugs approved over the past decade are "targeted" kinase inhibitors that interfere with intracellular signaling contributing to tumor progression. Unexpected cardiovascular and cardiometabolic effects of patient treatment with these inhibitors have provided unique insights into the role of kinases in human cardiovascular biology. Today, an ever-expanding number of cancer therapies targeting novel kinases and other specific cellular and metabolic pathways are being developed and tested in oncology clinical trials. Some of these drugs may affect the cardiovascular system in detrimental ways and others perhaps in beneficial ways. We propose that the numerous ongoing oncology clinical trials are an opportunity for closer collaboration between cardiologists and oncologists to study the cardiovascular and cardiometabolic changes caused by the modulation of these pathways in patients. In this regard, cardio-oncology represents an opportunity and a novel platform for basic and translational investigation and can serve as a potential avenue for optimization of anticancer therapies and for cardiovascular research and drug discovery.
© 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.