Helicobacter pylori cagA+ strains and dissociation of gastric epithelial cell proliferation from apoptosis. Peek RM, Moss SF, Tham KT, Pérez-Pérez GI, Wang S, Miller GG, Atherton JC, Holt PR, Blaser MJ (1997) J Natl Cancer Inst 89: 863-8 Clinical and pathological importance of heterogeneity in vacA, the vacuolating cytotoxin gene of Helicobacter pylori. Atherton JC, Peek RM, Tham KT, Cover TL, Blaser MJ (1997) Gastroenterology 112: 92-9 N-methyl D-aspartate channels link ammonia and epithelial cell death mechanisms in Helicobacter pylori Infection. Seo JH, Fox JG, Peek RM, Hagen SJ (2011) Gastroenterology 141: 2064-75 Serum neutralizing antibody response to the vacuolating cytotoxin of Helicobacter pylori. Cover TL, Cao P, Murthy UK, Sipple MS, Blaser MJ (1992) J Clin Invest 90: 913-8 Acid-induced dissociation of VacA, the Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin, reveals its pattern of assembly. Cover TL, Hanson PI, Heuser JE (1997) J Cell Biol 138: 759-69 Effects of Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin on primary cultures of human gastric epithelial cells. Smoot DT, Resau JH, Earlington MH, Simpson M, Cover TL (1996) Gut 39: 795-9 The m2 form of the Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin has cell type-specific vacuolating activity. Pagliaccia C, de Bernard M, Lupetti P, Ji X, Burroni D, Cover TL, Papini E, Rappuoli R, Telford JL, Reyrat JM (1998) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95: 10212-7 Induction of gastric epithelial cell apoptosis by Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin. Cover TL, Krishna US, Israel DA, Peek RM (2003) Cancer Res 63: 951-7 An intracellular target for Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin. Cover TL (1998) Trends Microbiol 6: 127-8; discussion 128-9 Release of Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin by both a specific secretion pathway and budding of outer membrane vesicles. Uptake of released toxin and vesicles by gastric epithelium. Fiocca R, Necchi V, Sommi P, Ricci V, Telford J, Cover TL, Solcia E (1999) J Pathol 188: 220-6 Exploiting dominant-negative toxins to combat Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis. Reyes-Robles T, Lubkin A, Alonzo F, Lacy DB, Torres VJ (2016) EMBO Rep 17: 428-40 Influenza virus primes mice for pneumonia from Staphylococcus aureus. Iverson AR, Boyd KL, McAuley JL, Plano LR, Hart ME, McCullers JA (2011) J Infect Dis 203: 880-8 Analysis of genetic diversity in cytotoxin-producing and non-cytotoxin-producing Helicobacter pylori strains. Garner JA, Cover TL (1995) J Infect Dis 172: 290-3 Acid activation of Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) results in toxin internalization by eukaryotic cells. McClain MS, Schraw W, Ricci V, Boquet P, Cover TL (2000) Mol Microbiol 37: 433-42 The vacuolating cytotoxin of Helicobacter pylori. Cover TL (1996) Mol Microbiol 20: 241-6 Structural organization of membrane-inserted hexamers formed by Helicobacter pylori VacA toxin. Pyburn TM, Foegeding NJ, González-Rivera C, McDonald NA, Gould KL, Cover TL, Ohi MD (2016) Mol Microbiol 102: 22-36 Cellular vacuolation and mitochondrial cytochrome c release are independent outcomes of Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin activity that are each dependent on membrane channel formation. Willhite DC, Cover TL, Blanke SR (2003) J Biol Chem 278: 48204-9 Mosaicism in vacuolating cytotoxin alleles of Helicobacter pylori. Association of specific vacA types with cytotoxin production and peptic ulceration. Atherton JC, Cao P, Peek RM, Tummuru MK, Blaser MJ, Cover TL (1995) J Biol Chem 270: 17771-7 Cloning of the cDNA of a human neutrophil bactericidal protein. Structural and functional correlations. Gray PW, Flaggs G, Leong SR, Gumina RJ, Weiss J, Ooi CE, Elsbach P (1989) J Biol Chem 264: 9505-9 Cell vacuolation induced by the VacA cytotoxin of Helicobacter pylori is regulated by the Rac1 GTPase. Hotchin NA, Cover TL, Akhtar N (2000) J Biol Chem 275: 14009-12 Divergence of genetic sequences for the vacuolating cytotoxin among Helicobacter pylori strains. Cover TL, Tummuru MK, Cao P, Thompson SA, Blaser MJ (1994) J Biol Chem 269: 10566-73 Isoketals form cytotoxic phosphatidylethanolamine adducts in cells. Sullivan CB, Matafonova E, Roberts LJ, Amarnath V, Davies SS (2010) J Lipid Res 51: 999-1009 Binding and internalization of the Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin by epithelial cells. Garner JA, Cover TL (1996) Infect Immun 64: 4197-203 Characteristics of Helicobacter pylori variants selected for urease deficiency. Pérez-Pérez GI, Olivares AZ, Cover TL, Blaser MJ (1992) Infect Immun 60: 3658-63 Effect of urease on HeLa cell vacuolation induced by Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin. Cover TL, Puryear W, Perez-Perez GI, Blaser MJ (1991) Infect Immun 59: 1264-70 Characterization of and human serologic response to proteins in Helicobacter pylori broth culture supernatants with vacuolizing cytotoxin activity. Cover TL, Dooley CP, Blaser MJ (1990) Infect Immun 58: 603-10 Correlation between vacuolating cytotoxin production by Helicobacter pylori isolates in vitro and in vivo. Cover TL, Cao P, Lind CD, Tham KT, Blaser MJ (1993) Infect Immun 61: 5008-12 Cloning and expression of a high-molecular-mass major antigen of Helicobacter pylori: evidence of linkage to cytotoxin production. Tummuru MK, Cover TL, Blaser MJ (1993) Infect Immun 61: 1799-809 Role of vacuolating cytotoxin in gastritis due to Helicobacter pylori in gnotobiotic piglets. Eaton KA, Cover TL, Tummuru MK, Blaser MJ, Krakowka S (1997) Infect Immun 65: 3462-4 Intercellular communication in Helicobacter pylori: luxS is essential for the production of an extracellular signaling molecule. Forsyth MH, Cover TL (2000) Infect Immun 68: 3193-9 Mapping of a domain required for protein-protein interactions and inhibitory activity of a Helicobacter pylori dominant-negative VacA mutant protein. Torres VJ, McClain MS, Cover TL (2006) Infect Immun 74: 2093-101 Random mutagenesis of Helicobacter pylori vacA to identify amino acids essential for vacuolating cytotoxic activity. McClain MS, Czajkowsky DM, Torres VJ, Szabo G, Shao Z, Cover TL (2006) Infect Immun 74: 6188-95 Children with invasive Staphylococcus aureus disease exhibit a potently neutralizing antibody response to the cytotoxin LukAB. Thomsen IP, Dumont AL, James DB, Yoong P, Saville BR, Soper N, Torres VJ, Creech CB (2014) Infect Immun 82: 1234-42 Role of the Helicobacter pylori virulence factors vacuolating cytotoxin, CagA, and urease in a mouse model of disease. Ghiara P, Marchetti M, Blaser MJ, Tummuru MK, Cover TL, Segal ED, Tompkins LS, Rappuoli R (1995) Infect Immun 63: 4154-60 Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin induces vacuolation of primary human mucosal epithelial cells. Harris PR, Cover TL, Crowe DR, Orenstein JM, Graham MF, Blaser MJ, Smith PD (1996) Infect Immun 64: 4867-71 When good enzymes go bad: conversion of topoisomerase II to a cellular toxin by antineoplastic drugs. Corbett AH, Osheroff N (1993) Chem Res Toxicol 6: 585-97 Bilirubin prevents acute DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting leukocyte infiltration and suppressing upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Zucker SD, Vogel ME, Kindel TL, Smith DL, Idelman G, Avissar U, Kakarlapudi G, Masnovi ME (2015) Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 309: G841-54 A 12-amino-acid segment, present in type s2 but not type s1 Helicobacter pylori VacA proteins, abolishes cytotoxin activity and alters membrane channel formation. McClain MS, Cao P, Iwamoto H, Vinion-Dubiel AD, Szabo G, Shao Z, Cover TL (2001) J Bacteriol 183: 6499-508 Characterization of HeLa cell vacuoles induced by Helicobacter pylori broth culture supernatant. Cover TL, Halter SA, Blaser MJ (1992) Hum Pathol 23: 1004-10 Vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) alleles of Helicobacter pylori comprise two geographically widespread types, m1 and m2, and have evolved through limited recombination. Atherton JC, Sharp PM, Cover TL, Gonzalez-Valencia G, Peek RM, Thompson SA, Hawkey CJ, Blaser MJ (1999) Curr Microbiol 39: 211-8
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