Frequency of inappropriate metformin prescriptions. Horlen C, Malone R, Bryant B, Dennis B, Carey T, Pignone M, Rothman R (2002) JAMA 287: 2504-5 Association between intensification of metformin treatment with insulin vs sulfonylureas and cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality among patients with diabetes. Roumie CL, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Hung AM, Liu X, Murff HJ, Elasy TA, Griffin MR (2014) JAMA 311: 2288-96 Metformin reduces liver glucose production by inhibition of fructose-1-6-bisphosphatase. Hunter RW, Hughey CC, Lantier L, Sundelin EI, Peggie M, Zeqiraj E, Sicheri F, Jessen N, Wasserman DH, Sakamoto K (2018) Nat Med 24: 1395-1406 Dissecting the actions of widely used diabetes drugs. Unger RH, Berglund ED, Habener JF, Cherrington AD (2013) Nat Med 19: 272-3 AMPK phosphorylates and inhibits SREBP activity to attenuate hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis in diet-induced insulin-resistant mice. Li Y, Xu S, Mihaylova MM, Zheng B, Hou X, Jiang B, Park O, Luo Z, Lefai E, Shyy JY, Gao B, Wierzbicki M, Verbeuren TJ, Shaw RJ, Cohen RA, Zang M (2011) Cell Metab 13: 376-388 Comparative effectiveness of sulfonylurea and metformin monotherapy on cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cohort study. Roumie CL, Hung AM, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Liu X, Murff HJ, Elasy TA, Griffin MR (2012) Ann Intern Med 157: 601-10 Comparative effectiveness of incident oral antidiabetic drugs on kidney function. Hung AM, Roumie CL, Greevy RA, Liu X, Grijalva CG, Murff HJ, Ikizler TA, Griffin MR (2012) Kidney Int 81: 698-706 Changing incident diabetes regimens: a Veterans Administration cohort study from 2000 to 2005. Huizinga MM, Roumie CL, Elasy TA, Murff HJ, Greevy R, Liu X, Speroff T, Griffin M (2007) Diabetes Care 30: e85 Effect of combination glipizide GITS/metformin on fibrinolytic and metabolic parameters in poorly controlled type 2 diabetic subjects. Cefalu WT, Schneider DJ, Carlson HE, Migdal P, Gan Lim L, Izon MP, Kapoor A, Bell-Farrow A, Terry JG, Sobel BE (2002) Diabetes Care 25: 2123-8 A common 5'-UTR variant in MATE2-K is associated with poor response to metformin. Choi JH, Yee SW, Ramirez AH, Morrissey KM, Jang GH, Joski PJ, Mefford JA, Hesselson SE, Schlessinger A, Jenkins G, Castro RA, Johns SJ, Stryke D, Sali A, Ferrin TE, Witte JS, Kwok PY, Roden DM, Wilke RA, McCarty CA, Davis RL, Giacomini KM (2011) Clin Pharmacol Ther 90: 674-84 Genetic variants in transcription factors are associated with the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of metformin. Goswami S, Yee SW, Stocker S, Mosley JD, Kubo M, Castro R, Mefford JA, Wen C, Liang X, Witte J, Brett C, Maeda S, Simpson MD, Hedderson MM, Davis RL, Roden DM, Giacomini KM, Savic RM (2014) Clin Pharmacol Ther 96: 370-9 Comparisons of persistence and durability among three oral antidiabetic therapies using electronic prescription-fill data: the impact of adherence requirements and stockpiling. Greevy RA, Huizinga MM, Roumie CL, Grijalva CG, Murff H, Liu X, Griffin MR (2011) Clin Pharmacol Ther 90: 813-9 Circulating natriuretic peptide concentrations reflect changes in insulin sensitivity over time in the Diabetes Prevention Program. Walford GA, Ma Y, Christophi CA, Goldberg RB, Jarolim P, Horton E, Mather KJ, Barrett-Connor E, Davis J, Florez JC, Wang TJ, Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group (2014) Diabetologia 57: 935-9 Risk of hypoglycemia following intensification of metformin treatment with insulin versus sulfonylurea. Roumie CL, Min JY, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Hung AM, Liu X, Elasy T, Griffin MR (2016) CMAJ 188: E104-E112 Coordinated maintenance of muscle cell size control by AMP-activated protein kinase. Lantier L, Mounier R, Leclerc J, Pende M, Foretz M, Viollet B (2010) FASEB J 24: 3555-61 Anti-diabetic medications and risk of primary liver cancer in persons with type II diabetes. Hagberg KW, McGlynn KA, Sahasrabuddhe VV, Jick S (2014) Br J Cancer 111: 1710-7 Comparative Effectiveness of Second-Line Agents for the Treatment of Diabetes Type 2 in Preventing Kidney Function Decline. Hung AM, Roumie CL, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Liu X, Murff HJ, Ikizler TA, Griffin MR (2016) Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 11: 2177-2185 Defining the contribution of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and protein kinase C (PKC) in regulation of glucose uptake by metformin in skeletal muscle cells. Turban S, Stretton C, Drouin O, Green CJ, Watson ML, Gray A, Ross F, Lantier L, Viollet B, Hardie DG, Marette A, Hundal HS (2012) J Biol Chem 287: 20088-99 Evaluation of metformin in early breast cancer: a modification of the traditional paradigm for clinical testing of anti-cancer agents. Goodwin PJ, Stambolic V, Lemieux J, Chen BE, Parulekar WR, Gelmon KA, Hershman DL, Hobday TJ, Ligibel JA, Mayer IA, Pritchard KI, Whelan TJ, Rastogi P, Shepherd LE (2011) Breast Cancer Res Treat 126: 215-20 Impact of a glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor and metformin on basal and glucagon-stimulated hepatic glucose flux in conscious dogs. Torres TP, Sasaki N, Donahue EP, Lacy B, Printz RL, Cherrington AD, Treadway JL, Shiota M (2011) J Pharmacol Exp Ther 337: 610-20 Validating drug repurposing signals using electronic health records: a case study of metformin associated with reduced cancer mortality. Xu H, Aldrich MC, Chen Q, Liu H, Peterson NB, Dai Q, Levy M, Shah A, Han X, Ruan X, Jiang M, Li Y, Julien JS, Warner J, Friedman C, Roden DM, Denny JC (2015) J Am Med Inform Assoc 22: 179-91 Metformin use and incidence cancer risk: evidence for a selective protective effect against liver cancer. Murff HJ, Roumie CL, Greevy RA, Hackstadt AJ, McGowan LED, Hung AM, Grijalva CG, Griffin MR (2018) Cancer Causes Control 29: 823-832 Lifestyle intervention in postmenopausal women: winning the game against diabetes. Wellons M (2011) Menopause 18: 837-8 Improved glucose control decreases the interaction of plasma low-density lipoproteins with arterial proteoglycans. Edwards IJ, Terry JG, Bell-Farrow AD, Cefalu WT (2002) Metabolism 51: 1223-9 The acute effect of metformin on glucose production in the conscious dog is primarily attributable to inhibition of glycogenolysis. Chu CA, Wiernsperger N, Muscato N, Knauf M, Neal DW, Cherrington AD (2000) Metabolism 49: 1619-26 Branched chain and aromatic amino acids change acutely following two medical therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Walford GA, Davis J, Warner AS, Ackerman RJ, Billings LK, Chamarthi B, Fanelli RR, Hernandez AM, Huang C, Khan SQ, Littleton KR, Lo J, McCarthy RM, Rhee EP, Deik A, Stolerman E, Taylor A, Hudson MS, Wang TJ, Altshuler D, Grant RW, Clish CB, Gerszten RE, Florez JC (2013) Metabolism 62: 1772-8 Preparation, preliminary pharmacokinetic and brain targeting study of metformin encapsulated W/O/W composite submicron emulsions promoted by borneol. Hong L, Li X, Bao Y, Duvall CL, Zhang C, Chen W, Peng C (2019) Eur J Pharm Sci 133: 160-166 Reweighted Mahalanobis distance matching for cluster-randomized trials with missing data. Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Roumie CL, Beck C, Hung AM, Murff HJ, Liu X, Griffin MR (2012) Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 21 Suppl 2: 148-54 Initiation of sulfonylureas versus metformin is associated with higher blood pressure at one year. Roumie CL, Liu X, Choma NN, Greevy RA, Hung AM, Grijalva CG, Griffin MR (2012) Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 21: 515-23 Kidney function decline in metformin versus sulfonylurea initiators: assessment of time-dependent contribution of weight, blood pressure, and glycemic control. Hung AM, Roumie CL, Greevy RA, Liu X, Grijalva CG, Murff HJ, Griffin MR (2013) Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 22: 623-31 Glycemic and weight changes after persistent use of incident oral diabetes therapy: a Veterans Administration retrospective cohort study. Huizinga MM, Roumie CL, Greevy RA, Liu X, Murff HJ, Hung AM, Grijalva CG, Griffin MR (2010) Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 19: 1108-12 Diabetes treatment intensification and associated changes in HbA1c and body mass index: a cohort study. Roumie CL, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Hung AM, Liu X, Griffin MR (2016) BMC Endocr Disord 16: 32
Hints: (1) double-click or double-tap to navigate to a node. (2) Grab a node and move it to arrange the graph.