Cyclic mares were given daily i.m. injections of 150 mg progesterone (Group P, N = 4), 150 mg progesterone and 10 mg oestradiol-17 beta (Group PE, N = 3), 10 mg oestradiol-17 beta (Group E, N = 3) or cottonseed oil vehicle (Group C, N = 4), from the day after ovulation (Day 1) to Day 28. Blood samples were collected daily, and the ovaries were palpated every 1-2 days. Serum FSH and LH concentrations were measured in all samples, and means determined for 7 consecutive 4-day periods throughout treatment. Comparisons within each steroid treatment group between time periods and comparisons between hormone treatment groups within each time period were made to investigate the way in which these ovarian steroids control cyclic gonadotrophin changes in the mare. The increase in LH during oestrus in Group C mares (controls) appeared to be inhibited by progesterone, resulting in low LH concentrations and failure of preovulatory-sized follicles to ovulate. In Group PE LH concentrations were lower than those in Group P, resulting in suppression of the development of the largest follicle. In Group E, treatment had little effect on FSH and LH concentrations, while follicular development was variable (ovulations on Days 25, 33 and 36). None of the steroid treatments appeared to suppress FSH concentrations directly but FSH concentrations showed a reciprocal relationship with the LH-dependent follicular development.