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The norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin transporters (NET, DAT and SERT, respectively), limit cellular signaling by recapturing released neurotransmitter, and serve as targets for antidepressants and drugs of abuse, emphasizing the integral role these molecules play in neurotransmission and pathology. This has compelled researchers to search for polymorphisms in monoamine (MA) transporter genes. Studies support linkage and association of MA transporter genetic variation in psychiatric and other complex disorders. Understanding the contribution of MA transporter polymorphisms to human behavior, disease susceptibility and response to pharmacotherapies will involve further progress in linkage and association that will be aided by both definition of highly selective phenotypes and utilization of a large number of polymorphic markers. The relationship of polymorphisms to alterations in transport capacity, likely a complex interaction, involving genetic background, disease state, and medication, will elucidate the means by which MA transporter genetic variability contributes to our individuality.