Kidney stone formers are at risk for opioid dependence. The aim of this study is to describe opiate exposure and determine predictors of prolonged opiate use among kidney stone formers after surgery. A retrospective review was performed among patients who underwent ureteroscopy for upper tract stone disease. Prescription data were ascertained from a statewide prescribing database. Demographic data and surgical factors were collected from the electronic medical record. Predictors of additional postsurgery prescriptions filled within 30 days and persistent opiate use 60 days after ureteroscopy were determined. Among 208 patients, 127 (61%) had received preoperative opiate prescriptions within 30 days before surgery. Overall, 12% ( = 25) of patients required an additional opiate prescription within 30 days after ureteroscopy, and 7% ( = 14) of patients continued to use opiate medications more than 60 days postoperatively. Patients continuing to use opiates long-term were not chronic opiate users. For both outcomes, preoperative opiate exposure, including number of prescriptions, days prescribed, and unique providers had significant associations (all < 0.05). Additionally, younger age ( = 0.049) was associated with obtaining an additional opiate prescription within 30 days. Lower BMI ( = 0.02) and higher ASA score ( = 0.03) were predictors of continued opiate use more than 60 days after ureteroscopy. The majority of stone formers have had opiate exposure before surgery, often from multiple providers. Approximately 1 in 8 stone formers who undergo ureteroscopy require additional opiate prescriptions within 30 days. A small but significant population receive opiates beyond the immediate postoperative period.