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The wheat-grain proteome was investigated, as a basis for devising more efficient methods of cultivar identification or discrimination. Australian wheats (Halberd, Cranbrook, CD87 and Katepwa) were used as the basis of this study. These cultivars were selected on the basis of differences in the quality types represented, in terms of dough-processing attributes that can suit one cultivar better than another for specific types of industrial utilisation. Total wheat endosperm (flour) protein extracts were prepared from mature wheat for two-dimensional electrophoresis, across both acidic (pH 4-7) and basic (pH 6-11) pH ranges. Three particular regions of the proteome maps were chosen for close comparison, involving two sets of gluten proteins and a nongluten protein region (involving small heat shock proteins), based on previous protein characterisation. Differences in the nongluten protein regions (heat shock proteins and other unidentified polypeptides) are of particular interest as being possible targets for use in developing new approaches to cultivar discrimination, such as the development of simple immunoassays.