Obesity prevalence continues to increase worldwide, as do the numerous chronic diseases associated with obesity, including diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The prevalence of bariatric surgery also continues to increase and remains the most effective and sustainable treatment for obesity. Over the last several years, numerous prospective and longitudinal studies have demonstrated the benefits of bariatric surgery on weight loss, mortality, and other chronic diseases. Even though the mechanisms underlying many of these beneficial effects remain poorly understood, surgical management of obesity continues to increase given its unmatched efficacy. In this commentary, we discuss recent clinical advancements as well as several areas needed for future research, including indications for bariatric and metabolic surgery, determination of responders and non-responders, metabolic surgery in non-obese individuals, and the evolving role of bariatric surgery in adolescents.