Although oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous neurodegenerative conditions, the precise mechanisms by which reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce neuronal death are still being explored. The generation of reactive lipid peroxidation products is thought to contribute to ROS neurotoxicity. Isoprostanes (IsoPs), prostaglandin-like molecules formed in vivo via the ROS-mediated oxidation of arachidonic acid, have been previously demonstrated to be formed in increased amounts in the brains of patients with various neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, we have identified a new class of IsoPs, known as A(2)- and J(2)-IsoPs or cyclopentenone IsoPs, which are highly reactive electrophiles and form adducts with thiol-containing molecules, including cysteine residues in proteins and glutathione. Cyclopentenone IsoPs are favored products of the IsoP pathway in the brain and are formed abundantly after oxidant injury. These compounds also potently induce neuronal apoptosis by a mechanism which involves glutathione depletion, ROS generation, and activation of several redox-sensitive pathways that overlap with those involved in other forms of oxidative neurodegeneration. Cyclopentenone IsoPs also enhance neurodegeneration caused by other insults at biologically relevant concentrations. These data are reviewed, whereas new data demonstrating the neurotoxicity of J-ring IsoPs and a discussion of the possible role of cyclopentenone IsoPs as contributors to neurodegeneration are presented.