Although the histologic changes occurring during healing on the lumen surface of large vessel synthetic vascular grafts have been well characterized, the cells populating the interstices of microvascular grafts have not been examined in detail. Since microvascular grafts are required to provide vascular continuity under quite different physiological and hemodynamic conditions as compared with large vessel grafts, these interstitial cells within the synthetic graft material may also vary as a function of graft size. Monoclonal antibodies, light microscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used in this study to identify the cells present within the 30-microns pores of 1-mm diameter polytetrafluoroethylene and replamineform silicone rubber grafts. Identified cells included few capillary endothelial cells enclosing erythrocytes, rare proliferating endothelial cells, few macrophages, rare foreign body giant cells, and a majority of fibroblasts. There was no evidence of smooth muscle cells or myofibroblasts within the interstices of these microvascular prostheses 12 weeks after implantation in the rabbit central ear artery. The graft types differed by the presence of foreign body giant cells and more densely packed collagen between cells in the replamineform silicone rubber graft interstices.