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BACKGROUND - Complement component 3 (C3) is a novel determinant of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Gene-nutrient interactions with dietary fat may affect MetS risk.
OBJECTIVES - The objectives were to determine the relation between C3 polymorphisms and MetS and whether interaction with plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), a biomarker of dietary PUFA, modulate this relation.
DESIGN - C3 polymorphisms (rs11569562, rs2250656, rs1047286, rs2230199, rs8107911, rs344548, rs344550, rs2241393, rs7257062, rs163913, and rs2230204), biochemical measurements, and plasma fatty acids were measured in the LIPGENE-SUpplementation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants (SU.VI.MAX) study in MetS cases and matched controls (n = 1754).
RESULTS - Two single nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with MetS. rs11569562 GG homozygotes had decreased MetS risk compared with minor A allele carriers [odds ratio (OR): 0.53; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.82; P = 0.009], which was augmented by high plasma PUFA status (OR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.93; P = 0.04). GG homozygotes had lower C3 concentrations than those in AA homozygotes (P = 0.03) and decreased risk of hypertriglyceridemia compared with A allele carriers (OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.92; P = 0.02), which was further ameliorated by an increase in long-chain n-3 (omega-3) PUFAs (OR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.22, 0.97; P = 0.04) or a decrease in n-6 PUFAs (OR: 0.32; CI: 0.16, 0.62; P = 0.002). rs2250656 AA homozygotes had increased MetS risk relative to minor G allele carriers (OR: 1.78; CI: 1.19, 2.70; P = 0.02), which was exacerbated by low n-6 PUFA status (OR: 2.20; CI: 1.09, 4.55; P = 0.03).
CONCLUSION - Plasma PUFAs may modulate the susceptibility to MetS that is conferred by C3 polymorphisms, which suggests novel gene-nutrient interactions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00272428.