Multifunctional nanoparticles as simulants for a gravimetric immunoassay.

Miller SA, Hiatt LA, Keil RG, Wright DW, Cliffel DE
Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011 399 (3): 1021-9

PMID: 21110011 · PMCID: PMC3031959 · DOI:10.1007/s00216-010-4419-8

Immunoassays are important tools for the rapid detection and identification of pathogens, both clinically and in the research laboratory. An immunoassay with the potential for the detection of influenza was developed and tested using hemagglutinin (HA), a commonly studied glycoprotein found on the surface of influenza virions. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized, which present multiple peptide epitopes, including the HA epitope, in order to increase the gravimetric response achieved with the use of a QCM immunosensor for influenza. Specifically, epitopes associated with HA and FLAG peptides were affixed to gold nanoparticles by a six-mer PEG spacer between the epitope and the terminal cysteine. The PEG spacer was shown to enhance the probability for interaction with antibodies by increasing the distance the epitope extends from the gold surface. These nanoparticles were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight, and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Anti-FLAG and anti-HA antibodies were adhered to the surface of a QCM, and the response of each antibody upon exposure to HA, FLAG, and dual functionalized nanoparticles was compared with binding of Au-tiopronin nanoparticles and H5 HA proteins from influenza virus (H5N1). Results demonstrate that the immunoassay was capable of differentiating between nanoparticles presenting orthogonal epitopes in real-time with minimal nonspecific binding. The detection of H5 HA protein demonstrates the logical extension of using these nanoparticle mimics as a safe positive control in the detection of influenza, making this a vital step in improving influenza detection methodology.

MeSH Terms (9)

Gold Hemagglutinins Humans Immunoassay Influenza, Human Nanoparticles Polyethylene Glycols Surface Properties Tiopronin

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