Endometriosis is an often painful disorder in which the endometrial glands and stroma grow outside the uterus. The disease affects women's quality of life and is a common cause of infertility. In this review, we describe promising new developments in the field based on in vitro assays and rodent models, each of which has the potential to be beneficial in the treatment of this disease. We will specifically describe the role of anti-inflammatory drugs, selective estrogen, or progesterone modulators, statins, antiangiogenic agents, and the potential for targeting stem cells as likely methods to hone in and eliminate endometriosis. The most promising of these potential therapies are currently slated for further testing in both rodent and nonhuman primate trials.