The periimplantation period is marked by edematous changes in the uterus. In the mouse, increased uterine vascular permeability occurs in response to estrogen and certain vasoactive mediators, but the mechanisms that regulate fluid transport during implantation are not fully understood. Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of membrane channel proteins that facilitate bulk water transport. To assess their role in implantation, we examined the expression of AQPs 0-9 in the mouse uterus on d 1-8 of pregnancy. Our results show distinct uterine expression patterns for AQP1, AQP4, and AQP5. AQP1 is localized to the inner circular myometrium throughout the periimplantation period. AQP4 is highly expressed in the luminal epithelium on d 1 of pregnancy but barely detectable at the time of implantation. AQP5 is expressed at low levels in the glandular epithelium during early pregnancy but is markedly increased on d 5. By immunohistochemistry, AQP5 is localized in the basolateral region of the uterine glands. Treatment of adult ovariectomized mice with replacement steroids demonstrates an estrogen-induced shift in AQP1 signals from the myometrium to the uterine stromal vasculature, suggesting a role in uterine fluid imbibition. In contrast, AQP5 is induced only in estrogen-treated, progesterone-primed uteri. We also observed expression of AQP8 in the inner-cell mass and AQP9 in the mural trophectoderm of the implanting blastocyst. Collectively, these results suggest that members of the AQP family are involved in embryo and uterine fluid homeostasis during implantation.