Constant red light (RR) influences the Gonyaulax clock in several ways: (1) Phase resetting by white or blue light pulses is stronger under background RR than in constant white light (WW); (2) frequency of the rhythm is less in RR than in WW; and (3) the amplitude of the spontaneous flashing rhythm is greater in RR than in WW. The phase response curve (PRC) to 4-hr white or blue light pulses is of high amplitude (Type 0) for cells in RR, but is of lower amplitude (Type 1) for cells in WW. In all cases, the PRC is highly asymmetrical: The magnitude of advance phase resetting is far higher than that of delay resetting. Consistent with this PRC, Gonyaulax cells in RR (free-running period greater than 24 hr) will entrain to T cycles of between 21 and 26.5 hr. The bioluminescence rhythms exhibit "masking" by blue light pulses while entrained to these T cycles. The fluence response of phase resetting to light-pulse intensity is not linear or logarithmic--rather, it is discontinuous. This feature is consistent with a limit cycle interpretation of Type 0 resetting of circadian clocks. Light pulses that cause large phase shifts also shorten the subsequent free-running period. The phase angle difference between the clock and the previous LD cycle is within 2 hr of the same phase between 16 degrees C and 25 degrees C, as determined from the light PRCs at various temperatures. Several drugs that inhibit mitochondria and/or electron transport will partially inhibit the phase shift by light.