Obesity is associated with increased markers of oxidative stress. We examined whether oxidative stress is reduced within the first week after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery and could be related to changes in adipose tissue depots. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) marker 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) and activity of antioxidant glutathione peroxidases (GPX) in plasma were compared before and ~1 week after RYGB. The effects of RYGB on subcutaneous adipose tissue and interstitial fluid 8-iso-PGF2α levels and subcutaneous adipose tissue expression of GPX-3 were also assessed. Levels of 8-iso-PGF2α in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue were determined. Plasma 8-iso-PGF2α levels decreased (122 ± 75 to 56 ± 15 pg/ml, P = 0.001) and GPX activity increased (84 ± 18 to 108 ± 25 nmol/min/ml, P = 0.003) in the first week post-RYGB. RYGB also resulted in reductions of 8-iso-PGF2α in subcutaneous adipose tissue (1,742 ± 931 to 1,132 ± 420 pg/g fat, P = 0.046) and interstitial fluid (348 ± 118 to 221 ± 83 pg/ml, P = 0.046) that were comparable to plasma (26-33%, P = 0.74). Adipose GPX-3 expression was increased (6.7 ± 4.7-fold, P = 0.004) in the first postoperative week. The improvements in oxidative stress occurred with minimal weight loss (2.4 ± 3.4%, P = 0.031) and elevations in plasma interleukin-6 (18.0 ± 46.8 to 28.0 ± 58.9 pg/ml, P = 0.004). Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues express comparable 8-iso-PGF2α levels (1,204 ± 470 and 1,331 ± 264 pg/g fat, respectively; P = 0.34). These data suggest that RYGB affects adipose tissue leading to the restoration of adipose redox balance within the first postoperative week and that plasma 8-iso-PGF2α is primarily derived from subcutaneous adipose tissue.