Over the past decade significant advancement has occurred in the biological and pathological role that Hp has in cardiovascular disease. Hp is an acute-phase protein with a role in the neutralization and clearance of free heme. Iron has tremendous potential for initiating vascular oxidation, inflammation and exacerbating coronary atherosclerosis. Hp genotype has been linked as a prognostic biomarker of acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, restenosis and cardiac transplant rejection. The increased understanding of Hp as a biomarker has provided new insights into the mechanisms of inflammation after cardiac injury and support the concept that Hp is not only an important antioxidant in vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis, but also an enhancer of inflammation in cardiac transplant.