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Hydrogel-electrospun mesh composites for coronary artery bypass grafts.

McMahon RE, Qu X, Jimenez-Vergara AC, Bashur CA, Guelcher SA, Goldstein AS, Hahn MS
Tissue Eng Part C Methods. 2011 17 (4): 451-61

PMID: 21083438 · DOI:10.1089/ten.TEC.2010.0427

The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of hydrogel-electrospun mesh hybrid scaffolds as coronary artery bypass grafts. The circumferential mechanical properties of blood vessels modulate a broad range of phenomena, including vessel stress and mass transport, which, in turn, have a critical impact on cardiovascular function. Thus, coronary artery bypass grafts should mimic key features of the nonlinear stress-strain behavior characteristic of coronary arteries. In native arteries, this J-shaped circumferential stress-strain curve arises primarily from initial load transfer to low stiffness elastic fibers followed by progressive recruitment and tensing of higher stiffness arterial collagen fibers. This nonlinear mechanical response is difficult to achieve with a single-component scaffold while simultaneously meeting the suture retention strength and tensile strength requirements of an implantable graft. For instance, although electrospun scaffolds have a number of advantages for arterial tissue engineering, including relatively high tensile strengths, tubular mesh constructs formed by conventional electrospinning methods do not generally display biphasic stress-strain curves. In the present work, we demonstrate that a multicomponent scaffold comprised of polyurethane electrospun mesh layers (intended to mimic the role of arterial collagen fibers) bonded together by a fibrin hydrogel matrix (designed to mimic the role of arterial elastic fibers) results in a composite construct which retains the high tensile strength and suture retention strength of electrospun mesh but which displays a J-shaped mechanical response similar to that of native coronary artery. Moreover, we show that these hybrid constructs support cell infiltration and extracellular matrix accumulation following 12-day exposure to continuous cyclic distension.

MeSH Terms (16)

Animals Blood Vessel Prosthesis Cell Survival Coronary Artery Bypass Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Extracellular Matrix Fibrin Hydrogel, Polyethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate Mechanical Phenomena Mice Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Myocytes, Smooth Muscle Phenotype Polyethylene Glycols Tissue Engineering Tissue Scaffolds

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