In recent years, considerable effort has been expended toward the development of synthetic bone graft materials. Injectable biomaterials offer several advantages relative to implants due to their ability to cure in situ, thus conforming to irregularly shaped defects. While Food and Drug Administration-approved injectable calcium phosphate cements have excellent osteoconductivity and compressive strengths, these materials have small pore sizes (e.g., 1 mum) and are thus relatively impermeable to cellular infiltration. To overcome this limitation, we aimed to develop injectable allograft bone/polyurethane (PUR) composite bone void fillers with tunable properties that support rapid cellular infiltration and remodeling. The materials comprised particulated (e.g., >100 microm) allograft bone particles and a biodegradable two-component PUR, and had variable (e.g., 30%-70%) porosities. The injectable void fillers exhibited an initial dynamic viscosity of 220 Pa.s at clinically relevant shear rates (40 s(-1)), wet compressive strengths ranging from < 1 to 13 MPa, working times from 3 to 8 min, and setting times from 10 to 20 min, which are comparable to the properties of calcium phosphate bone cements. When injected in femoral plug defects in athymic rats, the composites supported extensive cellular infiltration, allograft resorption, collagen deposition, and new bone formation at 3 weeks. The combination of both initial mechanical properties suitable for weight-bearing applications as well as the ability of the materials to undergo rapid cellular infiltration and remodeling may present potentially compelling opportunities for injectable allograft/PUR composites as biomedical devices for bone regeneration.