Increased levels of urinary PGE-M, a biomarker of inflammation, occur in association with obesity, aging, and lung metastases in patients with breast cancer.

Morris PG, Zhou XK, Milne GL, Goldstein D, Hawks LC, Dang CT, Modi S, Fornier MN, Hudis CA, Dannenberg AJ
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013 6 (5): 428-36

PMID: 23531446 · PMCID: PMC3752669 · DOI:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-12-0431

Elevated levels of COX-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) occur in inflamed tissues. To evaluate the potential links between inflammation and breast cancer, levels of urinary prostaglandin E metabolite (PGE-M), a stable end metabolite of PGE2, were quantified. We enrolled 400 patients with breast cancer: controls with early breast cancer (n = 200), lung metastases (n = 100), and metastases to other sites (n = 100). Patients completed a questionnaire, provided urine, and had measurements of height and weight. Urinary PGE-M was quantified by mass spectrometry. Ever smokers with lung metastasis who had not been exposed to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) had the highest PGE-M levels. PGE-M levels were increased in association with elevated body mass index (BMI; P < 0.001), aging (P < 0.001), pack-year smoking history (P = 0.02), lung metastases (P = 0.02), and recent cytotoxic chemotherapy (P = 0.03). Conversely, use of NSAIDs, prototypic inhibitors of COX activity, was associated with reduced PGE-M levels (P < 0.001). On the basis of the current findings, PGE-M is likely to be a useful biomarker for the selection of high-risk subgroups to determine the use of interventions that aim to reduce inflammation and possibly the development and progression of breast cancer, especially in overweight and obese women.

MeSH Terms (16)

Adult Aged Aging Biomarkers Breast Neoplasms Case-Control Studies Female Humans Inflammation Lung Neoplasms Middle Aged Obesity Prognosis Prostaglandins Risk Factors Young Adult

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