Levels of prostaglandin E metabolite and leukotriene E(4) are increased in the urine of smokers: evidence that celecoxib shunts arachidonic acid into the 5-lipoxygenase pathway.

Duffield-Lillico AJ, Boyle JO, Zhou XK, Ghosh A, Butala GS, Subbaramaiah K, Newman RA, Morrow JD, Milne GL, Dannenberg AJ
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2009 2 (4): 322-9

PMID: 19336727 · PMCID: PMC2745265 · DOI:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-09-0005

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) play a role in inflammation and carcinogenesis. Biomarkers that reflect tobacco smoke-induced tissue injury are needed. In this study, levels of urinary prostaglandin E metabolite (PGE-M) and leukotriene E(4) (LTE(4)), biomarkers of the COX and 5-LO pathways, were compared in never smokers, former smokers, and current smokers. The effects of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, on levels of PGE-M and LTE(4) were determined. Baseline levels of PGE-M and LTE(4) were positively associated with smoking status; levels of PGE-M and LTE(4) were higher in current versus never smokers. Treatment with 200 mg celecoxib twice daily for 6 +/- 1 days led to a reduction in urinary PGE-M levels in all groups but exhibited the greatest effect among subjects with high baseline PGE-M levels. Thus, high baseline PGE-M levels in smokers reflected increased COX-2 activity. In individuals with high baseline PGE-M levels, treatment with celecoxib led to a significant increase in levels of urinary LTE(4), an effect that was not found in individuals with low baseline PGE-M levels. In conclusion, increased levels of urinary PGE-M and LTE(4) were found in human smokers, a result that may reflect subclinical lung inflammation. In individuals with high baseline levels of PGE-M (elevated COX-2 activity), celecoxib administration shunted arachidonic acid into the proinflammatory 5-LO pathway. Because 5-LO activity and LTE(4) have been suggested to play a role in cardiovascular disease, these results may help to explain the link between use of COX-2 inhibitors and cardiovascular complications.

MeSH Terms (16)

Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase Arachidonic Acid Celecoxib Cyclooxygenase 2 Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors Female Humans Leukotriene E4 Male Middle Aged Pneumonia Prostaglandins E Pyrazoles Signal Transduction Smoking Sulfonamides

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