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The results indicate that serum myoglobin determinations may be obtained by radioimmunoassay utilizing time periods for the testing which allow more useful clinical evaluation of patients. The data also demonstrate, however, that there are important temporal considerations in using serum myoglobin levels for the detection of acute myocardial infarcts and, if this test is used to determine in the Emergency Room whether patients have had acute myocardial infarcts, these limitations will have to be kept in mind. In addition, three other patient subgroups that might be expected to have elevated serum myoglobin levels by radioimmunoassay have been determined. These include patients with shock (irrespective of etiology), patients with severe renal insufficiency, i.e., those with serum creatinine levels equal to or greater than 8 mg. per cent, and possibly patients who have been on alcohol binges immediately prior to being seen in the Emergency Room.