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In summary, regulation of steroid hydroxylase gene expression is complex and multifactorial, involving cAMP-dependent and -independent mechanisms required for maintenance of optimal steroidogenic capacity, tissue-specific mechanisms which lead to different steroidogenic pathways in different tissues, and developmental mechanisms which lead to fetal imprinting of steroid hydroxylase expression and which probably overlap with both maintenance and tissue-specific mechanisms. Future studies will involve identification of the trans-acting factors associated with each of these aspects of the multifactorial regulation and characterization of the cis-regulatory elements to which they bind. Such studies will inevitably lead to the identification of genes encoding these trans-acting factors and investigation of their regulation. In this way, it will be possible to work outward from the steroid hydroxylase genes toward the cell surface receptors in order to elucidate the series of events which lead to cAMP-dependent and -independent regulation of steroid hydroxylase gene expression.