Carmelo Rizzo
Faculty Member
Last active: 1/7/2016

Differential repair of etheno-DNA adducts by bacterial and human AlkB proteins.

Zdżalik D, Domańska A, Prorok P, Kosicki K, van den Born E, Falnes PØ, Rizzo CJ, Guengerich FP, Tudek B
DNA Repair (Amst). 2015 30: 1-10

PMID: 25797601 · PMCID: PMC4451939 · DOI:10.1016/j.dnarep.2015.02.021

AlkB proteins are evolutionary conserved Fe(II)/2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, which remove alkyl and highly promutagenic etheno(ɛ)-DNA adducts, but their substrate specificity has not been fully determined. We developed a novel assay for the repair of ɛ-adducts by AlkB enzymes using oligodeoxynucleotides with a single lesion and specific DNA glycosylases and AP-endonuclease for identification of the repair products. We compared the repair of three ɛ-adducts, 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine (ɛA), 3,N(4)-ethenocytosine (ɛC) and 1,N(2)-ethenoguanine (1,N(2)-ɛG) by nine bacterial and two human AlkBs, representing four different structural groups defined on the basis of conserved amino acids in the nucleotide recognition lid, engaged in the enzyme binding to the substrate. Two bacterial AlkB proteins, MT-2B (from Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and SC-2B (Streptomyces coelicolor) did not repair these lesions in either double-stranded (ds) or single-stranded (ss) DNA. Three proteins, RE-2A (Rhizobium etli), SA-2B (Streptomyces avermitilis), and XC-2B (Xanthomonas campestris) efficiently removed all three lesions from the DNA substrates. Interestingly, XC-2B and RE-2A are the first AlkB proteins shown to be specialized for ɛ-adducts, since they do not repair methylated bases. Three other proteins, EcAlkB (Escherichia coli), SA-1A, and XC-1B removed ɛA and ɛC from ds and ssDNA but were inactive toward 1,N(2)-ɛG. SC-1A repaired only ɛA with the preference for dsDNA. The human enzyme ALKBH2 repaired all three ɛ-adducts in dsDNA, while only ɛA and ɛC in ssDNA and repair was less efficient in ssDNA. ALKBH3 repaired only ɛC in ssDNA. Altogether, we have shown for the first time that some AlkB proteins, namely ALKBH2, RE-2A, SA-2B and XC-2B can repair 1,N(2)-ɛG and that ALKBH3 removes only ɛC from ssDNA. Our results also suggest that the nucleotide recognition lid is not the sole determinant of the substrate specificity of AlkB proteins.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

MeSH Terms (23)

Adenine AlkB Homolog 2, Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase AlkB Homolog 3, Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase Bacteria Bacterial Proteins Cytosine Dioxygenases DNA DNA, Single-Stranded DNA Adducts DNA Glycosylases DNA Repair DNA Repair Enzymes Escherichia coli Escherichia coli Proteins Guanine Humans Mixed Function Oxygenases Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rhizobium etli Streptomyces Substrate Specificity Xanthomonas campestris

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