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Aron Parekh
Faculty Member
Last active: 3/30/2020

Strain history and TGF-β1 induce urinary bladder wall smooth muscle remodeling and elastogenesis.

Heise RL, Parekh A, Joyce EM, Chancellor MB, Sacks MS
Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2012 11 (1-2): 131-45

PMID: 21384200 · PMCID: PMC3155650 · DOI:10.1007/s10237-011-0298-y

Mechanical cues that trigger pathological remodeling in smooth muscle tissues remain largely unknown and are thought to be pivotal triggers for strain-induced remodeling. Thus, an understanding of the effects mechanical stimulation is important to elucidate underlying mechanisms of disease states and in the development of methods for smooth muscle tissue regeneration. For example, the urinary bladder wall (UBW) adaptation to spinal cord injury (SCI) includes extensive hypertrophy as well as increased collagen and elastin, all of which profoundly alter its mechanical response. In addition, the pro-fibrotic growth factor TGF-β1 is upregulated in pathologies of other smooth muscle tissues and may contribute to pathological remodeling outcomes. In the present study, we utilized an ex vivo organ culture system to investigate the response of UBW tissue under various strain-based mechanical stimuli and exogenous TGF-β1 to assess extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis, mechanical responses, and bladder smooth muscle cell (BSMC) phenotype. Results indicated that a 0.5-Hz strain frequency triangular waveform stimulation at 15% strain resulted in fibrillar elastin production, collagen turnover, and a more compliant ECM. Further, this stretch regime induced changes in cell phenotype while the addition of TGF-β1 altered this phenotype. This phenotypic shift was further confirmed by passive strip biomechanical testing, whereby the bladder groups treated with TGF-β1 were more compliant than all other groups. TGF-β1 increased soluble collagen production in the cultured bladders. Overall, the 0.5-Hz strain-induced remodeling caused increased compliance due to elastogenesis, similar to that seen in early SCI bladders. Thus, organ culture of bladder strips can be used as an experimental model to examine ECM remodeling and cellular phenotypic shift and potentially elucidate BMSCs ability to produce fibrillar elastin using mechanical stretch either alone or in combination with growth factors.

MeSH Terms (13)

Animals Biomechanical Phenomena Collagen Elastin Extracellular Matrix Muscle, Smooth Phenotype Rats Rats, Sprague-Dawley Staining and Labeling Tissue Culture Techniques Transforming Growth Factor beta1 Urinary Bladder

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