Helicobacter pylori infection induces a chronic gastric inflammation which can lead to gastric ulcers and cancer. The mucosal immune response to H. pylori is first initiated by the activation of gastric epithelial cells that respond to numerous bacterial factors, such as the cytotoxin-associated gene A or the lipopolysaccharide intermediate heptose-1,7-bisphosphate. The response of these cells is orchestrated by different receptors including the intracellular nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 or the extracellular epidermal growth factor receptor. This nonspecific response leads to recruitment and activation of various myeloid (macrophages and dendritic cells) and T cells (T helper-17 and mucosal-associated invariant T cells), which magnify and maintain inflammation. In this review, we summarize the major advances made in the past year regarding the induction, the regulation, and the role of the innate and adaptive immune responses to H. pylori infection. We also recapitulate efforts that have been made to develop efficient vaccine strategies.
© 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.