BACKGROUND & AIMS - Helicobacter pylori eradication and endoscopic surveillance of gastric precancerous lesions are strategies to reduce gastric cancer (GC) risk. To our knowledge, this study is the longest prospective cohort of an H pylori eradication trial in a Hispanic population.
METHODS - A total of 800 adults with precancerous lesions were randomized to anti-H pylori treatment or placebo. Gastric biopsy samples taken at baseline and 3, 6, 12, 16, and 20 years were assessed by our Correa histopathology score. A generalized linear mixed model with a participant-level random intercept was used to estimate the effect of H pylori status on the score over time. Logistic regression models were used to estimate progression by baseline diagnosis and to estimate GC risk by intestinal metaplasia (IM) subtype and anatomic location.
RESULTS - Overall, 356 individuals completed 20 years of follow-up. Anti-H pylori therapy (intention-to-treat) reduced progression of the Correa score (odds ratio [OR], 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-0.93). H pylori-negative status had a beneficial effect on the score over time (P = .036). Among individuals with IM (including indefinite for dysplasia) at baseline, incidence rates per 100 person-years were 1.09 (95% CI, 0.85-1.33) for low-grade/high-grade dysplasia and 0.14 (95% CI, 0.06-0.22) for GC. Incomplete-type (vs complete-type) IM at baseline presented higher GC risk (OR, 13.4; 95% CI, 1.8-103.8). Individuals with corpus (vs antrum-restricted) IM showed an OR of 2.1 (95% CI, 0.7-6.6) for GC.
CONCLUSIONS - In a high-GC-risk Hispanic population, anti-H pylori therapy had a long-term beneficial effect against histologic progression. Incomplete IM is a strong predictor of GC risk.
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