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A significant portion of gastric cancers exhibit defective DNA mismatch repair, manifested as microsatellite instability (MSI). High-frequency MSI (MSI-H) is associated with hypermethylation of the human mut-L homologue 1 (hMLH1) mismatch repair gene promoter and diminished hMLH1 expression in advanced gastric cancers. However, the relationship between MSI and hMLH1 hypermethylation has not been studied in early gastric neoplasms. We therefore investigated hMLH1 hypermethylation, hMLH1 expression and MSI in a group of early gastric cancers and gastric adenomas. Sixty-four early gastric neoplasms were evaluated, comprising 28 adenomas, 18 mucosal carcinomas, and 18 carcinomas with superficial submucosal invasion but clear margins. MSI was evaluated using multiplex fluorescent PCR to amplify loci D2S123, D5S346, D17S250, BAT 25 and BAT 26. Methylation-specific PCR was performed to determine the methylation status of hMLH1. In two hypermethylated MSI-H cancers, hMLH1 protein expression was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Six of sixty-four early gastric lesions were MSI-H, comprising 1 adenoma, 4 mucosal carcinomas, and 1 carcinoma with superficial submucosal invasion. Two lesions (one adenoma and one mucosal carcinoma) demonstrated low-frequency MSI (MSI-L). The remaining 56 neoplasms were MSI-stable (MSI-S). Six of six MSI-H, one of two MSI-L, and none of thirty MSI-S lesions showed hMLH1 hypermethylation (P<0.001). Diminished hMLH1 protein expression was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in two of two MSI-H hypermethylated lesions. hMLH1 promoter hypermethylation is significantly associated with MSI and diminished hMLH1 expression in early gastric neoplasms. MSI and hypermethylation-associated inactivation of hMLH1 are more prevalent in early gastric cancers than in gastric adenomas. Thus, hypermethylation-associated inactivation of the hMLH1 gene can occur early in gastric carcinogenesis.