In vivo studies have previously shown that Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal protein (RP) gene expression is controlled by the transcription factor repressor activator protein 1 (Rap1p) in a TFIID-dependent fashion. Here we have tested the hypothesis that yeast TFIID serves as a coactivator for RP gene transcription by directly interacting with Rap1p. We have found that purified recombinant Rap1p specifically interacts with purified TFIID in pull-down assays, and we have mapped the domains of Rap1p and subunits of TFIID responsible. In vitro transcription of a UAS(RAP1) enhancer-driven reporter gene requires both Rap1p and TFIID and is independent of the Fhl1p-Ifh1p coregulator. UAS(RAP1) enhancer-driven transactivation in extracts depleted of both Rap1p and TFIID is efficiently rescued by addition of physiological amounts of these two purified factors but not TATA-binding protein. We conclude that Rap1p and TFIID directly interact and that this interaction contributes importantly to RP gene transcription.